Yadda Wayar Selula take yin aiki

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Yawancin mu a wannan lokaci wayar hannu ta zaka bangaren rayuwar mu, amma kuma nasan daga cikin tambayar da muke bukatar amsarta shine wai ya wayar hannun mu take iya kira ko ta amsa kira? Me yasa ake samun karni daban-daban a harkar sadarwa na waya?

Bari mu fitar da sirrin dake karkashin yadda waya ke musayar bayanai tsakanin mutane.

Idan mutum yana magana lokacin amsa waya, muryar ka na shiga cikin wayar ta hanyar amsakuwar wayar (microphone), makirfun sai ta sauya muryar zuwa amo na kwamfuta (digital signal) da taimakon wadansu na’urori da suke jikin wayar.

Shi wannan sautin da ya koma digital signal ya koma 0 da 1 ne, ita kuma antena wayar tana amsar wannan signa na 0 da 1 sai ta tura shi waje ta hanyar fasahar wutar lantarkin tafiyar da sauti (Electromagnetic Wave).

Shi kuma Electromagnatic Wave sai ya aika da wannan 0 da 1 ta hanyar kakkabe yanayin halayya aikawa da sakon, wanda ya shafi hanyar da sautin zai bi, da makamantansu.

Misalin fasahar da electromagnatic wave ya aikawa da wadannan lambobi na 0 da 1, shi 1 yana da mita na sama (high frequency) ita kuma 0 na tafiya a mita ta kasa (low frequency).

Saboda haka,  idan ka kira wayar abokinka zai canza kira zuwa Electromagnetic Waves, ta haka zaka samu damar yin magana da shi.

Kodayake Electromagnatic Wave ba sa iya yin tafiya mai nisan zango, karfin su na iya ragewa ne saboda cin karo da wadansu abubuwa da suke tare musu hanya, wanda suka hada na’urorin wutar lantarki da gidaje da makamantansu.

Kai kodama ba don wadannan matsalolin ba Electromagnetic Waves ba zasu iya yin dogon zango saboda halittar duniya da Allah yayi ta a dunkulalliya.

Dalilin wannan matsaloli ne aka kirkiri Cell Towers ko sabis a Hausance a kimiyar sadarwa na wayoyin hannu. A Kimiyyar Sadarwa na wayar hannu taswirar duniya an tsara ta kamar gidan zuma (hexagonal) ko rami-rami (cell), kowane rami an ajiye mishi nashi sabis na waya da kuma hanyar sadarwar da zai yi amfani da ita.

Su kuwa wadannan sabis na waya dukkansu an hada musu wayoyi ne  ta karkashin kasa da wayar Fiber Obtic. Su kuma wadannan wayoyi na Fiber Obtic da aka shinfida su a karkashin kasa sun ratsa cikin tekuna domin hada alaka da kasashe da garuruwa.

Su wadannan electromagnetic wave da wayar ka ke fitarwa sabis din ka ce zata dauke su, sai ta sarrafa shi ta kuma canza shi ya koma wani irin signa na haske mai tafiya da tsananin sauri, su kuma wannan singa zai bi wayar da ta shiga kananan na’urorin da zasu aika da sauran bayanai.

Bayan kana nan na’urorin sun gama komai sai su aika zuwa sabis dake kusa da kai, da zarar wannan signa ta shiga wannan sabis sai ta canza shi ya koma wannan electromagnatic waves, nan take sai wayar abokinka ta karbi wannan signal, ita kuwa wannan signal sai ta canza ta dawo 0 da 1 wanda zai biyo cikin wadancan na’urorin da suke cikin wayar sai su fitar da sauti daga sifikar wayar.

Maganar gaskiya wayoyin selula da ake fadin cewar basa amfani da waya ta zahiri, wannan ba gaskiya bane, suna amfani da wayoyi domin aikawa da sauti da kuma sakwanni. Wannan shine yadda wayoyin hannu suke yin musayar bayanai a tsakanin su.

Har ila yau akwai tambayar da bamu bayar da amsar ta ba. Ana samun nasarar kiran waya ne tsakaninka da abokin ka a lokacin da sabis dinka ta aika da sakon signa zuwa sabis din abokinka. To amma yaya sabis dinka ke iya fahimtar wane sabis ne abokinka yake?

Hakan yana tabbata ne da takaimakon wani daki da ake kira da Mobile Switching Center (MSC), shi wannan dakin shi ya hada dukkan sabis din kowace unguwanni da ke kusa da shi.

Kafin mu ci gaba da bayani bari mu kara bayani game da wannan dakin na MSC, lokacin da ka sayi layin waya (SIM Card), dukkanin bayan da kayi rigistan layin ka yana ajiye ne a MSC, to wannan MSC shine zai zama MSC dinka.

Shi wannan MSC naka zai ajiye bayanan ka wanda suka da tsarin kiran wayarka, wurin da kake, da kuma abin da kake yi a kowane lokaci. Idan ka bar unguwarku wacce MSC din ka yake sai ka matsa gaba MSC na gaba zai zama sabon MSC naka a matsayin Bakon MSC (Foreign MSC).

Kana shiga bakon MSC zai aikawa da MSC dinka inda kake, a takaice dai MSC dinka yana sanin wane yanki kake. Domin fahimtar a wace sabis MSC’n mutum yake. Shi MSC yana amfani da wadansu dabaru ne guda uku.

  • Dabara ta farko shine ya sabunta wurin da mutum yake a kowane lokaci.
  • Dabara ta biyu lokacin da mutum ya bar MSC dinsa ya tafi wani MSC, duk MSC’n da yake zata ta cigaba da aikawa da MSC dinka labarin inda mutum yake.
  • Dabara ta karshe shine lokacin da mutum ya kunna wayarsa.

Bari mu bayar da misali ta hanyar hada wadannan dabaru domin mu kara fahimta.

Mu kaddara Ladi tana son kiran Tanko, lokacin da Ladi ta danna lambar Tanko, kiran zai sauka ne kai tsaye zuwa MSC din ita Ladin, da zarar lambar wayar tanko ta shiga MSC din Ladi sai su aika da kiran zuwa MSC’n Tanko, nan take MSC din tanko zasu duba suga yanzu yana wane MSC ne.

Idan aka yi sa a yana MSC din shi, nan take MSC dinsa zai hada kiran da Ladi tayi masa, bayan ta duba shin wayar na kunne ne, ko yana amsa wani kira. Idan komai lafiya lau ne, nan take kawai sai wayar sa ta fara kara.

Idan kuwa Tanko ba ya kusa da MSC dinsa, nan take MSC dinsa zai binkici bakon MSC din da ya ga Tanko da wurin da yake a halin yanzu. Shi kuma bakon MSC da yake shima zai biyo irin hanyar da muka fada dazu kafin wayar Tanko ta amsa kiran Ladi.

Muhimmancin mita da waya ke amfani wurin aikawa da kira (Frequency Spectrum)

Bari mu yi karin bayani game da muhimmancin mita da waye ke amfani da shi wurin musayar bayanai wanda ake kira da Frequency Spectrum a turance.

Wannan mitar ina son mai karatu ya fahimta irin mitar da muke kamawa na gidajen Rediyo ne, da zaka ji gidan Rediyo yace ana kamamu a Mita mai gajeran zango da mita kaza a babban zango.

Aikawa da 0 ko 1 a tsari na digital communication, kowane mutum za a bashi mitar da wayar shi zata yi amfani da shi. Saboda haka ita wannan mitar da wayar salula ke amfani da ita ba ta da yawa sosai, ga shi kuma akwai biliyoyin mutane da suke amfani da wannan wayar selula. Wannan matsalar an magance tane ta amfani da fasaha iri biyu.

  1. Hanya ta farko shine Frequency Slot Distribution
  2. Hanya ta biyu Multiple Access Technique

A fasaha ta farko (Frequency Slot Distribution) ana bawai kowace sabis na waya mitar ta na daban, a fasaha ta biyu kuwa (Multiple Access Technique) ana baiwa kowace wayar da take kunne ne mitar ta dake wannan sabis din

Karnonin Wayar Salula

Yanzu babban abin tambayar shine me yasa ake samun karni-karni a wayar Selula?

Karni na Farko First Generation (1G)

Karni na farko – 1G yana baiwa masu amfani da wayar selula damar amfani da wayar ba tare an hada da igiyar waya ba, amma kuma wayar 1G tana fama da manyan matsaloli guda biyu.

  1. Matsala ta farko ita ce hanyar da yake aikawa da ita na mara waya (wireless) to ita mitar tana tafiya kamar sautin makirho (analag signal), shi kuwa wannan sauti na analog abubuwa da yawa suna iya lalata shi, shi yasa sautin baya fita da kyau kuma babu tsaro a tare da shi.
  2. Matsala ta biyu shine amfani da fasahar Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), wanda yake amfani da kowace mita da ya samu ba tare da amfani da ita yadda ya dace ba.

Wannan dalilai ne suka sa dole a fitar da wani karni na biyu a tsarin musayar bayanai na wayar selula.

Karni na Biyu – Second Generation (2G)

2G yana amfani da fasahar Digital Multiple Access wanda ake kira da CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) ko TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), a kuma karni na biyun ne aka shigo da tsarin amfani da data dake ba mutum damar aikawa sakon SMS da kuma shiga intanet.

Karni na Uku – Third Generation (3G)

A karni na uku an mayar da hankali ne wurin yadda za a kara aikawa da bayanai masu nauyi cikin sauki da hanzari ta hanyar amfani da dabarar WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) tare da kara bandwith na shiga intanet.

Karfin musayar bayanai da yakai 2Mbps ya sanya ake iya aikawa da saukonni masu nauyi kamar su GPS (Global Positioning System), kiran wayar intanet mai amfani da sauti (voice call) da kuma kiran waya na video (video call). Wannan canji da aka yi a wannan karni na uku shi ya sauya wayoyin selula na al’ada zuwa wayoyin komai-da-ruwanki (smartphones).

Karni na Hudu – Forth Generation (4G)

Karni na hudu shi kuma ya samu karfin musayar bayanai na Intanet daga 20 – 100 Mbps, wannan karfi ya dace da kallo manyan bidiyo masu kyau da karfi (HD Video) da kuma amfani da gidajen Talabijin. An samu wannan nasarar ne saboda amfani da fasahar OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) da fasahar MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output).

Ita wannan fasahar ta MIMO yana amfani da waya da mutum ke rikewa da su sabis a lokaci guda

Karni na Biyar – Fift Generation (5G)

Ita kuwa karni na biyar a fanni musayar bayanai na wayar selula wanda ake sa ran shigowarsa nan daga jimawa ba, ana fatan  bunkasar karfin musayar bayanai ta amfani da fasahar MIMO da kuma Milimeter Waves, hakan zai bayar da damar cimma nasar hada abubuwa da dama na fasahar Intanet-Don-Komai (Internet of Things – IoT), wanda ya hada da amfani da motoci marasa matuka, da amfani da gidaje masu aiki da kansu.

Wannan shine karshen bayani game da yadda wayoyin hannu suke yin aiki, da fatan mun fahimci yada din suke yin aiki.

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