Operating System

Operating System ko kuma ka kira shi da OS, shi ne software da ya fi kowanne mahimmanci a cikin kwamfutarka, kowace irin kwamfuta da muke amfani da ita da ƙananan na’urori irin su wayoyi dukkansu suna buƙatar Oerating System domin su yi aiki. Da Operating System ne sauran Software ko Program na kwamfuta suke yin aiki. Shi ya sanya babu wata na’ura da za ta yi aiki face sai ana saka mata OS a kanta. Misalin kwamfutocin da muka fi amfani da su a Afirka ana saka musu Operating System da kamfanin Microsoft suke yi, wato Windows. Akwai kuma kwamfutar da kamfanin Apple suke yinta wacce ake saka mata Operating System mai suna Mac OS, da kuma wayoyin komai-da-ruwanka da ake saka musu OS na Android ko kuma iPhone da ake saka mata iOS.

Kaɗan daga cikin aikin da Operating System yake yi shi ne.

  • Fahimtar saƙon da ake turowa cikin kwamfutar kamar rubutu da keyboard
  • Fitar da abin da ke faruwa a cikin kwamfuta kamar bayyanar da abu a jikin monitor.
  • Ajiya da kuma lura da takardu da kundin ajiyar ayyuka a cikin kwamfuta
  • Sarrafa kayan lantarkin da suke wajen System Unit kamar su printer da mouse da makamantansu

Duk da cewar akwai ayyuka masu yawa da Operating System yake yi, sai dai waɗannan sune kusan manyan aikin da aka fi faɗa. Shi kanshi operating system ɗin ya kasu kashi wurin shida dangane da irin yadda yake yin ayyukanshi.

Ga jerin OS da kuma irin ayyukan da kowanne daga cikinsu ya keɓanta da shi.

1)            Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) wanda shi aikin da yake yi shi ne gabatar da komai a lokacin da abu yake faruwa, irin wannan OS ɗin amfi amfani da shi a cikin Mutum-mutumi (robot) kamarar ɗaukar hoto mai motsi ko maras motsi (Camera) da irin kayan wasanni na gani na faɗa (Complex Multimedia Systems), haka da kayan da ake amfani da su wurin musayar bayanai irin na sojoji da makamantansu. Shi ya sa a wani lokaci ake danganta shi da Embaded Operating System

2)            Multi-User Operating System Irin waɗannan OS ɗin su suna bai wa mutane da yawa damar yin amfani da kwamfuta guda ɗaya a lokaci guda, shi ya sa kwamfutoci irin su Time-Sharing System da Internet Server ake danganta su da Multi-User Operating System saboda baiwa dubunnan mutane damar yin amfani da kwamfuta ɗaya a lokaci guda.

3)            Single-Tasking da Multi-Tasking OS:  Single Tasking Operating System yana barin manhaja (Program) guda ɗaya ne kacal ta yi aiki a jikin kwamfuta, duk lokacin da aka tashi program guda to babu damar wani program ɗin ya tashi dole sai idan an kashe na farko. Multi-Tasking OS shi kum yana bai wa kwamfuta damar ta iya amfani da program fiye da guda a lokaci guda, ba kamar Single Tasking ba.

4)            Distributed OS: Shi Distributed Operating System yana tattara kwamfutoci masu yawa wuri guda ɗaya ne ya sanya mutum ya riƙa yin amfani da su a matsayin kwamfuta guda ɗaya. Misalin kwamfutocin da aka haɗa su a Network suna yin aiki ne a matsayin Distributed Operating System.

5)            Templated OS: Shi kuma wannan Operating System ɗin ana amfani da shi ne a lokacin da ake son yin amfani da kwamfuta guda amma kuma a ba ta dama ta yi amfani da Operating System fiye da ɗaya. Misali kamar Cloud Computing wanda asali kwamfuta guda ɗaya ce amma kuma aka ɗora mata wani OS wanda zai ba mutum damar ya saka wani operating System saɓanin wanda yake kanta. Haka tsarin Virtualization na computer shi ma yana amfani da irin wannan OS ɗin ne.

6)            Embaded OS: Shi wannan Embaded OS wani Babbar Manhaja ce ta musamman da aka yi ta domin yin amfani da babbar kwamfuta a katafaren wuri. Misali duk kwamfutar da aka saka mata irin wannan OS ɗin za ka samu wani yanki ne na wata kwamfuta, ko kuma akwai wata kwamfuta ta musamman da take sarrafa ita wannan kwamfutar da kake gani. Misali kamar mashin da yake bada kuɗi ATM, Kwamfutocin cikin mota, Wuta mai bada hannu ta kan titi (Traffic Lights), Talabijin (Digital Television), GPS Navigation System, Elevators da dai makamantansu.

waɗannan dukkansu guda shida da na lissafo ana magana ne da yadda ita wannan babar manhajar take yin aiki. Shi ya sa waɗannan manhajoji ba za ka je kasu wa ka ce a baka Real-Time OS ba, domin ba a sansu da wannan suna ba. Duk wani kwamfuta da ake amfani da ita zaka samu Operating System a cikinta amma kuma dole wannan Operating System ɗin ta haɗa ɗayan waɗancan ayyukan, sannan kuma dole a samu kamfani da ya ƙera wannan Babbar Manhaja kuma da irin aikin da suka zaɓa mata ta yi.

Misalan Operating System

UNIX OS

Ana furta shi da yoo-niks, wannan shi ne aka ce farkon Operating System da aka fara yi, kuma shi Operating System da ka yi shi na farko da High-Level Programming Language wanda ake kiranshi da C Programming Language. Yana aikin Multi-Tasking Operating System kasancewar yana barin sama da Program ɗaya su yi aiki a lokaci guda. Ita wannan Babbar Manhaja ta UNIX an ƙirƙire ta ne a Bells Labs a cikin 1970s, an yi ta a wancan lokacin domin programmers ne domin amfani da ita a ƙananan kwamfutoci. Saboda irin yanayin da yake yin aiki UNIX ya zamanto manhajar da ake amfani da ita a Computer Workstation.

MAC OS

Shi Mac OS babbar manhaja ce da babban kamfanin ƙera kwamfuta mai suna Apple Computers suke yi. Kamfanin yana yin kwamfutoci iri daban-daban sannan kuma yanayin ƙananan kayan lantarki kamar iPod, da iPhone da iPad. Mac OS shi ne na biyu cikin Operating System da suka fi shahara a duniya bayan Windows OS.

Ya fara shigowa kasuwa ne a shekarar 1984, a lokacin yana aiki a matsayin Single Tasking Operating System ne, domin yana amfani da baƙin allo kawai domin yin amfani da shi (Commad line), amma daga baya shi ma ya koma Mult-Tasking Operating System kasancewar za ka iya amfani da program fiye da guda a lokaci guda. A yanzu da muke rubuta wannan mujallar kamfanin Apple Operating System ɗin da yake a kasuwa suke sayarwa ana kiranshi da OSX ne.

Linux

Linux shi Operating System na kyauta ne, wanda ana shiga intanet ne a saukar da shi kuma yana da fa’idoji da yawa. Ita wannnan babbar Manhaja ta fara bayyana ne a 25 ga watan Agusta 1991. Wanda Linus Torvalds da a bokanansa suka ƙirƙiro domin sauƙaƙewa al’umma samun damar mallakar babbar manhaja ba tare da sun biya kuɗi ba. Tana iya hawa kan kowane irin kwamfuta da kamfanin Intel ya yi processor ɗin ta, da kuma wacce kamfanin Alpha suka yi.

Ita wannan manhajar ta Linux ba wanda yake da haƙƙin mallakarta a yanzu, kuma an bai wa kowa dama ya saukar da ita kuma an ba shi damar yi mata gyara sai dai a tsarinta an haramta sayar da ita, a kowane lokaci ana iya samun sabon Linux OS ya shigo gari kuma ya fi da baya inganci kasancewar kodawane lokaci akwai waɗanda suke ƙoƙarin fitar da mafi ingancin sa. Daga cikin irin sunayen da aka fitar a zamuna da aka yi na wannan manhaja ta Linux akwai, Debian, Gentoo, Linpus, Linux, Puppy Linux, Rasbian, Red Hat, Ubuntu da dai makamantansu.

Windows OS

Wannan ita ce manhaja mafi shahara da kuma ɗaukaka a kayan Babbar Manhajar da ake amfani da ita a faɗin duniyan nan. Kamfanin Microsoft da ke ƙasar Amurka suke yin ta wanda Bill Gates da abokinshi McAllen su ne suka ƙirƙirota. Za ka samu sama da kashi 80% na kwamfutocin da muke yin amfani da su suna amfani da wannan manhajar ta Windows ne.

Shi ya sa za ka ji idan an tambayi mutum wai wane OS ne a kwamfutarsa sai ya ce maka Windows XP ko Windows 7 ko Windows 8 ko kuma Windows 10. waɗannan kaɗan daga cikin sunaye da tsarin zubi na OS da kamfanin Microsoft suka yi. A yanzu da muke rubuta wannan mujallar kamfanin ya saki sabon Manjarsa wacce ta samu sabon salo wurin rabata. Domin a baya kamfanin duk lokacin da ya saki sabuwar Babbar Manhaja sai an biya shi kuɗi a siya. Amma a wannan karon duk wanda yake da kwamfutar da ke da Windows 7 ko Windows 8 zai iya mallakar wannan Babbar Manhajar kyauta.

Shi irin wannan Operating System da muke saka shi a cikin kwamfutocinmu, ana amfani da shi a cikin kwamfutar da mutum ɗaya ne zai yi amfani da ita a lokaci guda. Amma suna yin Operating System wanda ake saka wa kwamfuta domin ta iya bai wa mutane da dama amfani da ita a lokaci guda wanda ake kiranshi da Windows Server.

BAR AMSA

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