Mene ne Internet?

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Lokacin muka dauki waya ko computer muna yin chating ko aika sako zuwa ga wani ta hanyar amfani da fasahar intanet, shin kun taba yin tunanin wai kwamfutoci nawa kake amfani da su a daidai wannan lokacin? Nasan zaka iya cewa ina amfani da kwamfuta ta da kuma ta wanda nake aikawa da sako wato guda biyu kenan.

Haka ne lallai kwamfuta guda biyu kuke amfani da shi kai da abokinka amma kuma akwai daruruwan kwamfutoci da suka zama gada tsakanin taka kwamfutar da ta abokinka, wannan tsani ko gada shi ake kira da Computer Network wanda su wadannan kwamfutocin da suke hade har kake bude shafuka su ake kira da Intanet.

To ya wannan kwamfutocin suke iya yin magana da junansu har muke iya yin mu’amala da junan mu.

Jama’a Assalamu Alaikum

Sunana Salisu Yusuf, Malami a Duniyar Computer

Yau zan yi mana darasi ne a yadda muke yin amfani da kwamfuta wacce take amfani da fasahar intanet domin mun fahimci yadda take yin aiki, amma da farko

Mene ne Intanet?

Intanet shi ne haduwar miliyoyin kwamfutoci dake fadin duniya ta hanyar amfani da layin wayar tangaraho ko kuma ta fasahar wayar da ba a gani wato wireless.

Cikin kasa da shekara ashirin intanet ta hada sama da kasashe 210 da ke fadin duniya, wanda hatta kasashe da basu da arziki yanzu suna amfani da wannan fasahar ta intanet.

Mutane da yawa suna amfani da kalmar Intanet musamman idan suna son yin hulda da jama’a ko kuma su ce suna online ne.

To mu sani intanet ba komai ba ne illa haduwar kwamfutocin wadanda ake samun su a kamfanoni ko masana’antu da makarantu da makamantansu.

Dukkanin wadannan kwamfutocin suna hade da junansu kodai ta hanyar amfani da wayin wayar tangaraho ko kuma ta haduwarsu da wayoyin fiber-optic, ko kuma ta amfani da wireless redio, ko kuma ta amfani da kwangirin satellite. Dukkan wadannan hanyoyi guda hudu kwamfutocin mu za su iya bi domin su amshi sako.

To mene aikin intanet?

Aikin intanet abu ne mai sauki, kawai ta dauki bayanai daga wannan kwamfutar zuwa wata kwamfuta.

Yadda take mu’amala da kowane sako daidai ne da irin sakon da mutum ya aika mata ko kuma ya ke son ya karba daga wurin ta.

Misalin yadda take yin aiki kamar yadda ofishin da yake lura da wasikun mu wato post office, kowane irin wasika ka tura post office zasu karba, kuma za a duba aga ina ake son kai shi saboda haka wannan wasika zata kaita daga wannan ofis zuwa wannan ofis har ta kai garin da ake son ta je har ta zo wurin ka.

To itama intanet haka take yi tana karbar kowane irin sako kuma sakon na bi daga wannan kwamfutar zuwa wata har ya karaso wurinka.

Ya intanet ya ke aikawa da sako ko ya karba?

Intanet na amfani da fasaha iri biyu ne da Ciruit Switcnhing da Packet Switching

Mene ne Circuit Switching?

Mafi yawancin Intanet suna amfani da layukan waya na gwamnati wato public network, kodayake akwai banbanci sosai tsakanin yadda wayar tangaraho take aiki da kuma yadda intanet take amfani da layin wayar tangaron ta yi aiki. Idan ka kira abokinka da wayar gida layin zai kasance a hade kai tsaye da wayar gidan abokinka.

Da zarar wannan abokin ya dauki wayar to hanyar tana bude wanda matukar bai ajiye ba ko kai baka yanke ba babu yadda za ka yi ka amsa wani wayar. To haduwar wadannan wayoyi guda biyu shi ake kira da Circuit Switching.

Mu dauka intanet dinka tana amfani da layin wayar tangaraho ne sai ka bude imel kana son ka rubuta tun daga lokacin da ka fara rubuta wannan imel din har ka gama babu wani wanda zai iya samun damar yin magana da kai har sai lokacin da ka gama, haka da za dauki waya na tsawon awa guda babu wani sako da zai shigo maka sai lokacin da ka gama amsa wannan wayar.

A can kamfanin layin tangarahon ana samun mutum a zaune wanda yake lura da wayoyin da ake hada ku a jikin kabet da ake kiran switch-board, wanda shi ke zare wayar da ka kira ha yadata da inda kake son ta je. Kodayake a yanzu wannan canzawa ba mutane ke yi ba kwamfuta ce ke yi da kanta.

Packet Switching

Intanet zata iya yin aiki da circuit switching, kuma akwai wani bangare da har yanzu yake yin amfani da shi. Idan mutum na amfani da tsarin Dialup domin yin amfani da intanet to kana amfani da circuit switching ne.

Amma mafi yawan bayanai da ake samu a intanet suna tafiya ta tsani na daban wanda ake kira da packet switching. Shi wannan tsari ne da yake tsittsinka bayanai da ka aika da shi ta intanet ya tafi da shi ta hanyoyi mabanbanta wanda idan ya je inda ake so sai ya sake curewa wuri guda domin a iya amfani da shi. Wannan tsittsinkewar ita ake kira da packets.

Shi yasa packets switching ya fi circuit switching saboda duk lokacin da aika da sako baka hana sauran sakwanni shigo maka kasancewar wannan tsittsinkawa da yake yi yana barin gurbin wani sako ya biyo wata kafa.

To ya kwamfutoci mabanbanta suke iya yin aiki a Intanet.

Daruruwan miliyoyin kwamfuta ne suke a kan intanet, amma dukkansu ba aiki iri daya suke yi ba. Wasu daga cikin su suna matsayin kamar duruwa ne ta ajiyar bayanan kayan kwamfuta wacce bata yin wani aiki sai idan ana bukatar kayan da ke cikinta, irin wannan kwamfutar ita ake kira da Servers.

Su kuwa kwamfutocin da suke ajiyar gamagarin takardu a intanet ana kiransu da file server.

Su kuwa kwamfutocin da suke ajiyar sakon imel da muke aikawa su ake kira da mail servers.

Wadanda suke su suke rike shafukan intanet ana kiransu da Web Server.

Wannan ke nuna lallai akwai miliyoyin kwamfutocin server akan intanet.

Ita kuwa kwamfutar da muke amfani da ita domin mu sami bayanai daga computer server ita ake kira Client Computer.

Duk lokacin da kake son ka duba wani abu da kwamfutarka kana amfani da kamfanin da ya baka damar shiga intanet to su irin wadannan kamfanoni su ake kira da ISP wato Internet Service Providers.

Saboda haka kwamfutarka ita ce Client kwamfutar kamfanin da suka baka intanet ita ce Server.

A lokacin da kwamfutoci guda biyu suka hadu a intanet domin musayar bayanai dukkansu suna kan mataki guda ne. Da za ka kunna kwamfutarka ka nemi wani abokinka da kuyi hira irin tattaunawa da ake kira da Chatting lokacin da kuka fara magana kuma fara musayar bayanai kamar hotuna da makamantansu to wannan tsarin ana kiranshi da Peer-to-Peer communication. Wani lokaci irin wadannan kwamfutoci suna yi aiki a matsayin Client wani lokaci kuma a matsayin Server

bayan Client Computer da Server Computer akwai kwamfutar da ke shiga tsakaninsu wacce ake kira da suna routers wacce aikin ta kawai ta tabbatar da an sami haduwa (connection) tsakanin kwamfutoci.

Idan a gidanku ko makaranta ko ma’aikata aka sami kwamfuta masu yawa idan ana son su iya musayar bayanai tsakaninsu kuma a lokaci guda to ana bukatar router.

To ya intanet ya ke yin aiki?

Mu sani a zahirin magana intanet ba aiki take yi ba kamar yadda dan aikin kai wasiku ya ke yi ba, ba kuma mutum iri na da kai ba ne suke tafiyar da bayanai da suke cikin ta ba.

To intanet tana amfani da wani tsari ne na TCP/IP wato Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

Dukkan wani sako da zai shigo cikin kwamfutar mu dole sai ya bi ta wannan tsarin musayar bayanai na TCP/IP wanda shi a zahiri kwamfutoci ne guda biyu.

Amma a ilimin kwamfuta idan aka ce protocol ana magana ne kan amintacciyar hanyar da aka yadda bayanai su bi kuma a tabbatar da sun kai inda ya kamata. To me TCP da IP a zahiri suke yi.

Internet Protocol wato hanyar da ake baiwa kowace kwamfuta adireshi ne, wadannan adireshin wadansu lambobi da babu wata na’ura da take shiga intanet da bata da shi, tun daga waya da kwamfuta da ma sauran na’urori.

To Internet Protocol wannan adireshin ya ke amfani da shi domin ya yi musayar bayanai da wata kwamfuta.

Shi kuwa Transmission Control Protocol shi ne yake lura da yadda packets ya ka kakkatsa bayanai da suke tafiya wata kwamfuta, kuma shi ke da alhakin idan bayanan sun isa waccan kwamfutar ya mayar da su daidai yadda za a iya karantawa har a fahimta.

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