Computer Virus: Cikakkun bayanai akan yadda yake yin ta’adi a cikin na’ura

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Bayyanar ‘virus’ na computer ya yawaita ne ko ma a ce ya bayyana ne a kusan shekarar 1980, wanda a gabanin wadannan shekaru babu wanda ya san wani abu mai suna ‘virus’. Akwai tunanin wasu dalilai guda uku da ake ganin su suka sa aka kirkiri virus, wadannan dalilai kuwa su ne:

1. Dalili na farko shi ne a baya ba kowane mahaluki ba ne ya san ma akwai wata abu computer ba, wasu sukan ji labarin ta a gidajen yada labarai, sai a cikin shekarar 1980 a lokacin da aka samu yawaitar irin wadannan na’urori da muke ganin su a ko ina a fadin duniyar nan, irin wadanda muke ganinsu a gidajenmu da ofisoshinmu da asibitocinmu da dai sauran makamantansu. Su wandannan irin na’urori su ne wadanda ake kiransu da Personal Computer ko PC a takaice wato (Na’ura mallakinka).
Su kuwa wadancan na’urori na asali wanda ba ka iya ganisu a gidaje da wurare da muka ambata (saboda girmansu), ba su ma da yawa da har wani zai iya cewa ya gansu, ba kowane wuri ake samunsu ba illa manya-manyan ma’aikatun gwannati, gwamnatin ma ba kowacce ba sai ta kasashen da suka ci gaba. To a cikin wannan shekara ta 1980 ita ce shekarar da duniya ba za ta manta ba musamman Duniyar Computer, domin a wannan shekarar ne kamfanoni irin su IBM (International Business Machine) da kamfani irin su Apple Macintosh, suka fara kirkirar ita wannan na’ura mallakinka (PC) wacce ake ganinta a yanzu. To, a wannan shekara sai aka samu na’ura ta yawaita a duniya, ganin na’ura ta yawaita sai wasu mutane suka fara kirkirar wadansu program domin su Bata ita na’urar.

2. Dalili na biyu shi ne; lokacin da aka fara amfani da hanyar amfani da na’ura wajen kiran waya, mutane suna amfani da Bulleted Board tare da moderm domin sauko da kananan programs daga Internet. A wannan lokacin saboda samun wannan sabuwar fasaha (domin a baya ba a iya yin haka) sai mutane suka rinka yin amfani da wannan dama suna dauko Games daga internet suna sa su a cikin na’urorinsu. Duk a wannan lokaci ne aka samu bayyanar wadansu programs kamar Word Processing Program da Spreadsheet da makamantan irin wadannan shahararrun programs. Bulleted Board, ana amfani da shi a goya masa wani tsarin program wanda ake kira da (Trojon Horse).
Trojan Horse program ne da yake da suna mai dadi, kuma yana kunshe da bayanai, idan aka sauko da wani abu daga Bulleted Board wanda dama daga Internet yake wannan kafa idan aka yi rashin sa’a akwai Trojan Horse a kunshe da shi sai kawai ya shiga na’urarka ya fara ta’adi ko kuma ya fara abin da bai kamata ba. Irin abubuwan da zai yi shi ne ya share dukkan abin da ke cikin kwakwalwar na’urarka mai amfani.

3. Dalili na uku da ya taimaka wajen kirkiro Virus shi ne bayyanar Floppy Disk. A wancan lokacin a shekarar 1980 program kanana ne, wanda a wancan lokacin OS da wasu program za su iya shiga cikin Floppy Disk daya ko biyu (girman Floppy Disk shi ne 3.5Mb), to, ka ga duk abin da aka ce program ne kuma ya shiga cikin Floppy ashe kankantarshi ta kai a duba. A baya na’urori ba su da manyan kwakwalwa (Hard Disk) wadansu idan za ka tashe su sai ka sa masu Floppy Disk din sannan ta tashi kuma dukkanin programs da za ka yi amfani da su suna cikin shi ne. To, tun da OS zai iya zaunawa a cikin Floppy Disk, shi ne suka kirkiri Virus don ya lalata OS din ko kuma program da aka ajiye a cikin sa.

A wancan lokaci su kansu Virus ba wai kamar yanzu ba ne, su ma ba su wuce wasu layika guda biyu ko fiye da haka ba wanda ake rubuta su, a daura su a jikin wasu shahararrun program kamar Word Processing da wasu shahararrun games. (da zarar sun fahimci cewar wannan program mutane sun damu da su yi amfani da shi, sai kawai su dauro Virus da zai Bata shi). To, idan mutum ya shiga yanar giza (internet) ya shiga sashen Bulleted Board ya ga wani sabon program ko games, ya ga irin aikin da yake yi, idan ya gamsu da aikin shi, idan ya sauko da shi cikin na’urarshi domin ya yi aiki da shi tun da shi kan shi game din karami ne, sannan Code da aka goya mashi karami ne sai kawai ka ga na’urarka tana wasu ‘yan rashin hankula da baka gane mashi ba. Wani sa’i ma shi program din ba shi ake daura wa Virus din ba, a shafukan yanar gizon ake daura wa da zarar ka yi amfani da Floppy ka dauko wani program sai ya biyo cikin Floppy din sannan ya fara ta’adi ana’urar ka, ta hanyar duba dukkanin abin da yake cikin naur’ar, idan ya ga program da zai iya lalatawa sai ya fara aiki. Wani lokacin ma, ba wai zai lalata wasu files naka ba ne, zai ta maimaita kan shi ne, har sai ya tsayar da ita na’urar, ko kuma ya dauki wani file guda ya yi ta bude shi da yawa a kowane lokaci (kamar Raila Odinga). Ba tare da ka lura ba sai virus ya cika na’urarka. Daga cikin abin tsoro da shi Virus, shi ne idan wani ya zo da Floppy Disk, ya kawo maka aiki ne, ko kuma ya zo zai dauki aiki a cikin na’urarka ne, idan har akwai wannan Virus to sai ya fada cikin wannan Floppy Disk ba tare da mai shi ya sani ba. Idan ya je ya sa a cikin na’urar shi shi ma sai na’urar shi ita ma ta kamu da irin wannan cutar. Da wannan ne Virus ya yadu a duniya cikin kankanin lokaci.

Mutane suna fahimtar hanyar da za su tsare ko kuma magance na’urar su, su kuma gwanayen virus suna kara fito da wata sabuwar hanyar yada shi da salon yadda zai rinka lalata kayan na’ura. Daga cikin nasarori da suka samu wajen cutarwar shi ne, dama da suka samu ta su shigar da Virus cikin Memory na na’ura yadda ba sai ka tashi program da ta kamu da Virus ba, sannan shi virus ya fara ta’adi ba, ko kuma yada kan shi ba. Idan dai har wannan Virus ya sami damar kutsawa cikin Memory na Computer to an gama, zai ci gaba da yada kan shi matukar wannan na’urar tana kunne ne. hakan ya kara ba Virus karfi da ikon yaduwa, mutane kuma sun fara kara damuwa da irin ta’addanncin da Virus yake yi.
Shi kuwa Virus manufarshi, shi ne ya lalata ko ya jikkata wani program (domin wani virus ana aiko shi musamman domin ya lalata wani program) da na’ura take amfani da shi wajen yin wani muhimmin aiki.

A misali akwai wurin da ka ke kiran shi da Boot Sector (inda na’ura take ajiye dukkan kayan da take bukata wajen tashi ko kashe kanta). To, wasu virus nan kawai suke nufa, kuma aiken da a kan yi masu kenan da zarar suka samu shiga cikin Boot Sector sai su yi fata-fata da wadannan kayan, idan suka gama, kai kuma ka gama aiki a wannan lokaci ka kashe ta, to, idan ka dawo daga baya domin ka tashe ta, sai ta ce dauke ni inda ka ajiye ni, ma’ana ba za ta sake tashi ba balle ka ci gaba da aikin ka. Daga muhimmmancin wannan Boot Sector yana daga cikin program da suke gaya wa sauran program da suke cikin na’urarka ga yadda za su yi aiki da sa’adda ake bukatar aikin su.

Wani abin karin haushi shi ne, duk sa’adda mutum ya dauki Floppy Disk ya sa a cikin na’urar da take da irin wannan Virus, sannan ya dauke shi ya sa shi a cikin na’urarka da kake bukatar aiki da ita, to ba makawa sai ya sa wa na’urar taka wannan cuta. Shi yasa za ka ga an fi samun Virus a Jami’o’i da shagunan aiki na na’ura domin a wuraren ne aka fi amfani da shi Floppy Disk din wajen dauka da kuma kai ayyuka daban-daban.

To, da Virus din da yake shiga Boot Sector ko wanda yake zuwa a like da program, maganar ta kau, domin a wancan shekarun na baya ana daukar program a cikin Floppy kawai kamar yadda muka fada a baya, wanda muka ce hatta OS yana shiga cikin Floppy daya ko biyu. Amma a wannan lokaci, ka kwantar da hankalinka, domin a yau dukkanin programs da ake amfani da su sun fi karfin su shiga cikin Floppy Disk saboda girmansu. Maganar Virus da ke shiga Boot Sector ita ma ta kau, domin a wannan lokacin dukkanin kamfanoni da suke yin OS suna hado shi ne tare da wani program na musamman wanda shi ke da alhakin lura da Boot Sector. Maganar daukar Virus ta hanyar Floppy Disk ita ma ta kau damin a wannan lokaci da wuya ka ga wani yana amfani da shi, kuma gashi dukkanin programs da mutum zai siya za ka tarar da shi a cikin CD ko DVD yake wanda su kuma a tsarinsu babu wani abu da zai iya shiga cikin su. Sai dai idan su kamfanin da suka yi program din su suka hada da virus (ko kuma irin program na sata masu zuwa tare da crack). Amma da matukar wahala virus ya shigo maka na’ura a sanadiyar sa program da ya zo a cikin CD ko DVD. Kodayake a yanzu akwai makwafin Floppy Disk wanda shi ma yana saurin yada Virus shi ne Flash Drive, domin yana aiki ne kamar yadda Floppy kuma shi yafi Floppy matsala domin shi yakan iya daukar kowane irin virus sannan zai iya daukar virus masu yawa daban-daban.

Amma ka sani, shi ma virus da yake shiga memory ko Boot Sector, ba wai ba su iya shiga ba ne, suna iya shiga sai dai basa iya yada kansu kamar yadda suke iya yi a baya, domin kulawa ta musamman da aka bashi domin kare na’ura daga lalacewa.

EMAIL VIRUSES

Salon yada virus ya sami sabon salo a shekarar 1999 a lokacin da wani virus wanda aka turoshi ta Email a hade da Ms Word File wanda ake kiran shi Melissa.
A watan Maris 1999 aka kirkiri Melissa Virus wanda aka hada shi da file na Ms Word, shi kuma Melissa ga yadda yake yin nasa salon cutarwar.

Wani mutum ne ya kirkiro Melissa sannan ya daura shi a Ms Word Document sannan ya daura shi a internet a wani dandali na Newsgroup, wuri ne da mutane suke shiga domin ana zuba abubuwan karuwa na na’ura kamar bayanai masu muhimmanci da mutum zai yi amfani da su wajen gyara ko koyon wani aiki da dai makamantansu. To, kamar sauran masu kirkirar Virus shi ma wannan mutumin ya yi amfani da wurin da ya daura wannan document wanda yake kunshe a cikin wani tsarin rubutu da ke hade da Macro wanda su kamfanin da suke yin Ms Word program sun ba mai amfani da program din damar ya kara wata fasaha ta musamman wadda mutum idan zai iya sai program din shi ya rinka yin wani aiki na musamman, wanda sauran irin wannan program baya yi. To, tun da mutane sun saba shiga Interner kuma suna shiga dandalin Newsgroup, kuma wani abu mai kama da virus ba a taBa turashi a jikin Ms Word file ba sai kawai mutane suka rinka saukar da shi cikin na’uririnsu domin suga me wannan document ke kunshe da shi.
Ya Melissa Virus yake Ta’adi?

Da zarar mutum ya bude wannan document, ba zai ga komai ba kuma ba zai fahimci abin da yake faruwa ba, amma a karkashin kasa shi wannan document sai ya warware wannan Macro, sannan ya nufi inda ka ke ajiye adireshi da sunanyen mutane ana’urarka (wanda da yawa wasu daga cikin mutane a wannan kasa ba su san akwai inda za ka ajiye lambobin waya da sunaye da hotuna da lambar email da makamantan su ba a Computer). Idan har kana ajiye irin wadannan sunaye sai Melissa ya dauki sunayen mutane hamsin (50) daga ciki, ya dauko wannan document wanda yake da wannan virus ya aika wa mutanen nan guda hamsin (50) kuma ya sa naka adireshin a jikin email din yadda duk wanda yaga wannan email yasan wane shi ne ya aiko da sakon email din, kuma kai amintacce ne a wurin shi ya san ba za ka aiko da virus ba. Ba wai ya tsaya haka ba ke nan, su ma wadancan mutane hamsin (50) da ya aika wa, su ma zai dauki mutane hamsin su ma ya goya wannan document ya aika masu, to da haka Melissa Virus ya cika duniya. Masana sun ce a tarihin virus ba a taBa samun virus da yada yadu a dan kankanin lokaci kuma ya cika duniya kamar Melissa ba.

Daga cikin manufofin wadanda suka kirkiri Melissa shi ne manyan kamfanoni su daina amfani da email, hakarsu ta cimma ruwa, domin lokacin da aka gano irin ta’adi da Melissa yake yi, dole yasa manyan kamfanoni suka kashe sashen akwatunan email din su, domin kada Melissa ya hau kan na’urorin su (su kuwa na’urorin su ba wanda yasan yawan mutanen da suke amfani da ita).

Kamar yadda muka fada a baya, shi wannan Virus na Melissa ana amfani da Macro na Ms Word Document, wanda shi wannan Macro, Code ne bai wuce ‘yan layika ba da ake rubuta shi ta hanyar VBA (Visual Basic for Application) wannan sashe ne na rubuta program mai sauki domin karawa dukkan wani application na Microsoft Word karfi wajen zartar da aiki na musamman. Sai suka yi amfani da shi suka goya Macro, wanda da zarar ka bude wannan document domin karanta abin da ke cikin sa, sai kawai ya fara ta’adi. Ko da yake ba wai Melissa Virus shi kadai ne Virus da aka turo shi ta hanyar email ba.

I LOVE YOU VIRUS

‘I love you Virus’; virus ne da aka same shi a ranar 4 ga watan Mayu, 2000 bayan kamar shekara daya da wata daya da bayyanar Melissa. Shi wannan Virus na I Love You ya sha banban da Melissa domin shi email za a aiko maka a jikin email din akwai attachment, to shi wannan attachment yana kunshe da wasu rubutu (code) kanana, ko kuma program dan karami wanda da zarar ka matsa mouse sau biyu (Double Click), sai ya fara duba dukkanin mutanen da suke cikin matattarar adireshinka dukkan su ya dauke su, ya aika da Virus sannan ya fara cinye maka muhimman files da program da suke cikin na’urar. Karfin I Love You Virus ya kai inda zai kai da tsayar da na’urar gaba dayanta ya zama ba za ta iya motsawa ba. To, hakan shi ne abu mafi sauki da Virus zai iya yi.

A dalilin haka, kamfanin Microsoft wanda su ne wadanda aka fi amfani da kayan su wajen Typing da makamantansu, suka sanya wani tsari, wanda shi wannan tsari zai hana duk wani Virus da aka yi amfani da VBA aka rubuta shi kuma aka sashi tare da daya daga application dinsu zai kare shi daga Virus. Wannan tsari ana kiran shi da Micro Virsus Protection. Wanda da zarar wannan Bangaren a kunne yake (wato ance ya yi aiki) to babu wani Virus da zai taho ta wannan hanya ya kuma cutar da na’urar ka.

Amma abin bakin ciki da haushi, mutane suna mantawa ko kuma nuna halin ko in kula da wannan MVP, idan ya bayyanar da sako cewar “hattara da wannan document akwai VBA a jikin shi” maimakon mutane su duba me sakon ya kunsa, sai kawai a yi biris da shi, wasu ma da zarar irin wannan sako ya damesu sai su nemi yaya ake kashe sakon domin kada ya kara bayyana a gaba. To wannan yana daya daga cikin irin kura-kuran da mutane suke yi, a lokacin da suka ga wani sako ya dame su sai su nemi sanin abin da wannan sako ya kunsa ba a yi halin ko-in-kula ba. Ya kamata a kula da kyau a kuma yi Hattara!!!

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