Mene ne Software?

Software waɗansu rubutu na umarni ne da ake yi domin su iya sarrafa Hardware ko kuma su umurci kwamfuta yin wani abu ko kuma barin wani abu, wanda a Ingilishi ake cewa “Software is a set of instruction that control hardware or tells computer what to do”. Idan babu software, hardware ko kuma kwamfuta ba ta da wani amfani. Misali idan babu Browser a jikin kwamfuta babu yadda za ka yi ka buɗe wani shafi a intanet, haka idan babu babbar manhajar kwamfuta Operating System babu yadda za a yi ita birauzar ta iya hawa kan wannan kwamfutar sannan har kai ka iya ɗaukarta ka yi aiki da ita.

Keyboard da mouse da suke aiki da kwamfutarka ba su sami damar yin aikin ba sai bayan da aka saka musu manhajar su wacce take sarrafa su, haka hatta wayoyinmu da muke iya amfani da su wajen yin kira, rubuta wasiƙu, ɗaukar hoto duk da babu software da ba za su yi aiki ba.

Shi ya sa muka kira software da Manhajar Kwamfuta domin kasancewar ita ke sarrafa dukkan wani abu da ke ciki,  da kuma wajen kwamfutar.

Karkasuwar Software

Ga al’ada a na kasa Software kashi biyu, akwai System Software da kuma Application Software.

Mene ne System Software?

System Software shi ne muke kira da babbar manhaja wadda ita ce kwamfuta ke buƙata da farko domin ta sarrafa dukkan wani kayan lantarki da ake saka mata da kuma waɗansu kananan manhajoji da mutum yake buƙata ya yi amfani da su a cikin ita kwamfutar.

Shi ya sa system software suke kiranshi a Turance da “Set of Instruction that control Hardware” kenan System Software shi ke sarrafa dukkan wani Harware da ke jikin kwamfuta, waɗanda suka haɗa  da Operating System, da Drivers da su suke sarrafa hardware da kuma irin su Linkers da Debuggers. Haka System Software yana sarrafa dukkan wani Software da kwamfuta take buƙatar shi da kuma wanda ɗan adam ya ke buƙata domin yin amfani da su. Shi ya sa shi kanshi System Software ya kasu gida biyu.

Karkasuwar System Software

System Software ana iya kasa shi gida uku

  1. Operaating System
  2. Utility Software
  3. Device Driver

Operating System

Operating System ko kuma ka kira shi da OS, shi ne software da ya fi kowanne mahimmanci a cikin kwamfutarka, kowace irin kwamfuta da muke amfani da ita da ƙananan na’urori irin su wayoyi dukkansu suna buƙatar Oerating System domin su yi aiki. Da Operating System ne sauran Software ko Program na kwamfuta suke yin aiki. Shi ya sanya babu wata na’ura da za ta yi aiki face sai ana saka mata OS a kanta. Misalin kwamfutocin da muka fi amfani da su a Afirka ana saka musu Operating System da kamfanin Microsoft suke yi, wato Windows. Akwai kuma kwamfutar da kamfanin Apple suke yinta wacce ake saka mata Operating System mai suna Mac OS, da kuma wayoyin komai-da-ruwanka da ake saka musu OS na Android ko kuma iPhone da ake saka mata iOS.

Kaɗan daga cikin aikin da Operating System yake yi shi ne.

  • Fahimtar saƙon da ake turowa cikin kwamfutar kamar rubutu da keyboard
  • Fitar da abin da ke faruwa a cikin kwamfuta kamar bayyanar da abu a jikin monitor.
  • Ajiya da kuma lura da takardu da kundin ajiyar ayyuka a cikin kwamfuta
  • Sarrafa kayan lantarkin da suke wajen System Unit kamar su printer da mouse da makamantansu

Duk da cewar akwai ayyuka masu yawa da Operating System yake yi, sai dai waɗannan sune kusan manyan aikin da aka fi faɗa. Shi kanshi operating system ɗin ya kasu kashi wurin shida dangane da irin yadda yake yin ayyukanshi.

Ga jerin OS da kuma irin ayyukan da kowanne daga cikinsu ya keɓanta da shi.

1)            Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) wanda shi aikin da yake yi shi ne gabatar da komai a lokacin da abu yake faruwa, irin wannan OS ɗin amfi amfani da shi a cikin Mutum-mutumi (robot) kamarar ɗaukar hoto mai motsi ko maras motsi (Camera) da irin kayan wasanni na gani na faɗa (Complex Multimedia Systems), haka da kayan da ake amfani da su wurin musayar bayanai irin na sojoji da makamantansu. Shi ya sa a wani lokaci ake danganta shi da Embaded Operating System

2)            Multi-User Operating System Irin waɗannan OS ɗin su suna bai wa mutane da yawa damar yin amfani da kwamfuta guda ɗaya a lokaci guda, shi ya sa kwamfutoci irin su Time-Sharing System da Internet Server ake danganta su da Multi-User Operating System saboda baiwa dubunnan mutane damar yin amfani da kwamfuta ɗaya a lokaci guda.

3)            Single-Tasking da Multi-Tasking OS:  Single Tasking Operating System yana barin manhaja (Program) guda ɗaya ne kacal ta yi aiki a jikin kwamfuta, duk lokacin da aka tashi program guda to babu damar wani program ɗin ya tashi dole sai idan an kashe na farko. Multi-Tasking OS shi kum yana bai wa kwamfuta damar ta iya amfani da program fiye da guda a lokaci guda, ba kamar Single Tasking ba.

4)            Distributed OS: Shi Distributed Operating System yana tattara kwamfutoci masu yawa wuri guda ɗaya ne ya sanya mutum ya riƙa yin amfani da su a matsayin kwamfuta guda ɗaya. Misalin kwamfutocin da aka haɗa su a Network suna yin aiki ne a matsayin Distributed Operating System.

5)            Templated OS: Shi kuma wannan Operating System ɗin ana amfani da shi ne a lokacin da ake son yin amfani da kwamfuta guda amma kuma a ba ta dama ta yi amfani da Operating System fiye da ɗaya. Misali kamar Cloud Computing wanda asali kwamfuta guda ɗaya ce amma kuma aka ɗora mata wani OS wanda zai ba mutum damar ya saka wani operating System saɓanin wanda yake kanta. Haka tsarin Virtualization na computer shi ma yana amfani da irin wannan OS ɗin ne.

6)            Embaded OS: Shi wannan Embaded OS wani Babbar Manhaja ce ta musamman da aka yi ta domin yin amfani da babbar kwamfuta a katafaren wuri. Misali duk kwamfutar da aka saka mata irin wannan OS ɗin za ka samu wani yanki ne na wata kwamfuta, ko kuma akwai wata kwamfuta ta musamman da take sarrafa ita wannan kwamfutar da kake gani. Misali kamar mashin da yake bada kuɗi ATM, Kwamfutocin cikin mota, Wuta mai bada hannu ta kan titi (Traffic Lights), Talabijin (Digital Television), GPS Navigation System, Elevators da dai makamantansu.

waɗannan dukkansu guda shida da na lissafo ana magana ne da yadda ita wannan babar manhajar take yin aiki. Shi ya sa waɗannan manhajoji ba za ka je kasu wa ka ce a baka Real-Time OS ba, domin ba a sansu da wannan suna ba. Duk wani kwamfuta da ake amfani da ita zaka samu Operating System a cikinta amma kuma dole wannan Operating System ɗin ta haɗa ɗayan waɗancan ayyukan, sannan kuma dole a samu kamfani da ya ƙera wannan Babbar Manhaja kuma da irin aikin da suka zaɓa mata ta yi.

 

Misalan Operating System

UNIX OS

Ana furta shi da yoo-niks, wannan shi ne aka ce farkon Operating System da aka fara yi, kuma shi Operating System da ka yi shi na farko da High-Level Programming Language wanda ake kiranshi da C Programming Language. Yana aikin Multi-Tasking Operating System kasancewar yana barin sama da Program ɗaya su yi aiki a lokaci guda. Ita wannan Babbar Manhaja ta UNIX an ƙirƙire ta ne a Bells Labs a cikin 1970s, an yi ta a wancan lokacin domin programmers ne domin amfani da ita a ƙananan kwamfutoci. Saboda irin yanayin da yake yin aiki UNIX ya zamanto manhajar da ake amfani da ita a Computer Workstation.

MAC OS

Shi Mac OS babbar manhaja ce da babban kamfanin ƙera kwamfuta mai suna Apple Computers suke yi. Kamfanin yana yin kwamfutoci iri daban-daban sannan kuma yanayin ƙananan kayan lantarki kamar iPod, da iPhone da iPad. Mac OS shi ne na biyu cikin Operating System da suka fi shahara a duniya bayan Windows OS.

Ya fara shigowa kasuwa ne a shekarar 1984, a lokacin yana aiki a matsayin Single Tasking Operating System ne, domin yana amfani da baƙin allo kawai domin yin amfani da shi (Commad line), amma daga baya shi ma ya koma Mult-Tasking Operating System kasancewar za ka iya amfani da program fiye da guda a lokaci guda. A yanzu da muke rubuta wannan mujallar kamfanin Apple Operating System ɗin da yake a kasuwa suke sayarwa ana kiranshi da OSX ne.

Linux

Linux shi Operating System na kyauta ne, wanda ana shiga intanet ne a saukar da shi kuma yana da fa’idoji da yawa. Ita wannnan babbar Manhaja ta fara bayyana ne a 25 ga watan Agusta 1991. Wanda Linus Torvalds da a bokanansa suka ƙirƙiro domin sauƙaƙewa al’umma samun damar mallakar babbar manhaja ba tare da sun biya kuɗi ba. Tana iya hawa kan kowane irin kwamfuta da kamfanin Intel ya yi processor ɗin ta, da kuma wacce kamfanin Alpha suka yi.

Ita wannan manhajar ta Linux ba wanda yake da haƙƙin mallakarta a yanzu, kuma an bai wa kowa dama ya saukar da ita kuma an ba shi damar yi mata gyara sai dai a tsarinta an haramta sayar da ita, a kowane lokaci ana iya samun sabon Linux OS ya shigo gari kuma ya fi da baya inganci kasancewar kodawane lokaci akwai waɗanda suke ƙoƙarin fitar da mafi ingancin sa. Daga cikin irin sunayen da aka fitar a zamuna da aka yi na wannan manhaja ta Linux akwai, Debian, Gentoo, Linpus, Linux, Puppy Linux, Rasbian, Red Hat, Ubuntu da dai makamantansu.

Windows OS

Wannan ita ce manhaja mafi shahara da kuma ɗaukaka a kayan Babbar Manhajar da ake amfani da ita a faɗin duniyan nan. Kamfanin Microsoft da ke ƙasar Amurka suke yin ta wanda Bill Gates da abokinshi McAllen su ne suka ƙirƙirota. Za ka samu sama da kashi 80% na kwamfutocin da muke yin amfani da su suna amfani da wannan manhajar ta Windows ne.

Shi ya sa za ka ji idan an tambayi mutum wai wane OS ne a kwamfutarsa sai ya ce maka Windows XP ko Windows 7 ko Windows 8 ko kuma Windows 10. waɗannan kaɗan daga cikin sunaye da tsarin zubi na OS da kamfanin Microsoft suka yi. A yanzu da muke rubuta wannan mujallar kamfanin ya saki sabon Manjarsa wacce ta samu sabon salo wurin rabata. Domin a baya kamfanin duk lokacin da ya saki sabuwar Babbar Manhaja sai an biya shi kuɗi a siya. Amma a wannan karon duk wanda yake da kwamfutar da ke da Windows 7 ko Windows 8 zai iya mallakar wannan Babbar Manhajar kyauta.

Shi irin wannan Operating System da muke saka shi a cikin kwamfutocinmu, ana amfani da shi a cikin kwamfutar da mutum ɗaya ne zai yi amfani da ita a lokaci guda. Amma suna yin Operating System wanda ake saka wa kwamfuta domin ta iya bai wa mutane da dama amfani da ita a lokaci guda wanda ake kiranshi da Windows Server.

Utility Software

Utility Software suna wani ɓangare ne na System Software amma shi aikin shi shi ne lura da lafiyar Operating System da yadda abubuwa suke kaiwa da komowa a cikin taka kwamfutar. waɗannan ‘ya’ya na Utility sune suka da alhakin lura da devices da aka haɗa da kwamfuta da abubuwan da suke shiga da fita ta hanyar internet, da irin waɗanda suke lura da printer da dai makamantansu.

Karkasuwar Utility Software

Utility software suna da yawa wanda a wannan karatu ba za mu sami damar kawo muku dukkansu ba sai dai za mu yi ƙoƙarin kawo masu muhimmanci sosai duk da dukkansu suna da muhimmanci.

1. Add and Remove Hardware

Wannan yana ɗaya daga cikin Utility wanda yake lura da shiga da fitar kowane irin Hardware da aka haɗashi da kwamfuta. Abinda ake nufi shi ne duk lokacin da mutum ya saka wani hardware a jikin kwamfuta to Add and Remove Hardware shi ke da alhakin lura da shi, zai duba ya gani shin wannan hardware an taɓa saka shi a jikin wannan kwamfutar ko kuma ba a taɓa saka shi ba, idan ba a taɓa saka shi ba sai ya bincika a ɗakin ajiyar manhajojin devices akwai ilimin sanin yadda wannan Hardware ya ke yin aiki? Idan akwai sai ya ɗauko ya saka wa kwamfutar domin ta san yadda za tayi amfani da shi.

Idan kuwa ta duba ta ga babu ilimin wannan hardware sai ta nemi agaji a wurin kai mai harware ɗin wanda idan kana da driver ɗin sai ka saka mata, haka idan kai ma baka da shi sai ta nemi agaji ta Intanet, idan kana da intanet sai ta shiga idan kuma ba ka da intanet shi ke nan kwamfutar ba za ta iya sarrafa wannan hardware ɗin ba.

2. Add and Remove Software

Wannan shi kuma shi ke da alhakin duk wata ƙaramar manhaja da za a saka a cikin kwamfuta ya ɗauketa ya saka ta inda ya dace, tun daga ɗakin ajiyar manhajoji, ƙulla alaƙarta da Babbar Manhajar Kwamfuta da kuma yadda za a iya samunta a cikin kwamfutar duk lokacin da aka buɗe ita kwamfutar. Haka wannan Utility ɗin shi ke da alhakin iya cire duk wata manhaja da take cikin kwamfutar domin a lokacin da take ajiyar su waɗancan manhajoji ta kuma haddace duk ɗakuna da ta je ta zuba su, to duk lokacin da aka nemi a cire program to za ta sake bin waɗancan gidaje ta cire su.

Anti-Virus:

Kamar yadda da yawa daga cikin masu karatun wannan mujallar suka sani cewar Virus wani irin ɗan ƙaramin program ne da ake rubuta shi domin ya shiga kwamfutar mutane ya yi wata ɓarna ko kuma satar muhimman bayanai ba tare da mai ita ya sani ba. To Utility yana da ɗa wanda ake kira da Anti-Virus wanda aikin shi, shi ne tabbatar da cewar babu wani gurɓatacce Program da ya shigo cikin kwamfutarka ballantana ya yi maka ta’adi. Shi ya sa kowace kwamfuta tana da nata ant-virus da take zuwa da shi, wanda yake buƙatar kodawane lokaci ka rika shiga intanet kana ƙara saukar mishi da bayanan virus da suka shiga sababbi. Idan kuma na kwamfutarka ba shi da ƙarfi sai ka sayi na kasuwa waɗanda aka ƙarfafa da inganta ayyukansu.

Backup Software

Su ma Utility Software ne waɗanda aikin su shi ne su taimaka maka wurin tattaro abubuwa masu muhimmanci da ka yi ko ka ajiye a cikin kwamfutarka domin su ba ka damar taskace su a wani wuri domin ko ta kwana. Kowace kwamfuta tana da irin wannan manhaja wacce za ta iya ba ka damar ajiyar waɗannan ayyuka da ka yi, kamar aikin da ka yi na Document ko hotuna da ka zuba a Pictures Folder ko don ka ajiyesu a wani wuri cikin kwamfutar ko kuma ka taskace su a cikin wani wurin ajiya kamar External Hard Disk, ko flash da makamantansu. Idan kuma wanda yake cikin kwamfutar bai yi maka ba sai ka sami na kuɗi.

Disk Checker

Shi ma utility software ne wanda aikin shi shi ne tabbatar da lafiyar Hard Disk da suke jikin kwamfutarka, duk lokacin da aka kunna kwamfuta ko kuma aka kashe ta, Hard Disk ɗin kwamfutar files ne suke aiki to shi wannan Disk Checker shi ke da alhakin lura da mazaunin kwane file a jikin hard disk kuma ya tabbar da cewar Hard Disk yana cikin ƙoshin lafiya.

Disk Cleaner

Shi kuma aikin da yake yi shi ne ya tabbatar da duk wasu bola da kwamfuta take tarawa ko wanda mutum yake gogewa amma kuma ba sa barin cikin kwamfutar. To shi Disk Cleaner aikin shi shi ne ya tabbatar da irin waɗannan sharar ba a barsu ba.

Disk Defragmenter

Shi ma Utility ne aikin da yake yi shine ya tabbatar babu wani aiki ko manhaja ko file da bai zauna inda ya dace ba, shi wannan Utility yana ɗaya daga cikin Utility masu amfani sosai, kasancewar babu wanda ya san mazaunin files ko folder na kwamfuta da kuma inda ya dace da su sai shi. Shi ya sa duk lokacin da mutum yake aiki sai kwamfutar ta mutu a daidai wannan lokacin file da kake aiki da su suna buƙatar su koma matsuguninsu na asali. To shi Disk Defragementer shi ke mayar da kowane file wurin zamanshi, sannan kuma yana mayar da kwamfuta ta riƙa tafiya da sauri.

Disk partitions

Shi ma utility ne da yake taimaka wa Babbar Manhaja wurin iya raba Hard Disk na kwamfuta ba tare da an rasa wani abu da ke cikin ta ba. Shi Disk Partition shi ake amfani da shi domin raba Hard Disk guda zuwa gidaje fiye da ɗaya. Shi ma kowace kwamfuta tana da nata amma idan kana son mai inganci sosai sai ka biya kuɗi domin siyanshi.

Device Driver

Wannan shi ne abu na ƙarshe da ake  yin magana idan aka zo maganar System Software. Device Driver shi ne asalin ilimin da kwamfuta take buƙata domin ta yi magana da Hardware. Duk lokacin da aka yi sabon hardwara misali kamar printer ko keyboad ko irin su hard disk su kamfanin da suka yi, injiniyoyin da suka yi ta su suke da alhakin ganin sun rubuta program wanda idan aka saka shi a kowace irin kwamfuta domin ta fahimci aikinsa da yadda za ta sarrafa shi.

To wannan software da su injiniyoyin da suka yi wa wannan hardware shi ake kira da Device Driver, shi ya sa duk wanda ya sami wani hardware ya haɗa shi da kwamfuta amma kuma ba shi da driver ɗin shi sai ka ga wannan hardware baya aiki. A cikin kowane irin System Software akwai ɗaki na musamman da ake ajiyar irin waɗannan Driver ɗin. Misali lokacin da mutum yake ƙoƙarin ɗora Windows a cikin kwamfutarshi tana ƙirƙirar wata folda da take zuba mafi yawan hardware da ake amfani da su a cikin kwamfuta.

To duk lokacin da aka saka sabon hardware a jikin kwamfuta to Add and Remover Hardware zai shiga cikin wannan foldar ya duba ya gani ko akwai Driver ɗin sa ko kuma babu.

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