MENE NE DATABASE?

Database ko kuma ku kirashi da DB a ilimin Kwamfuta. Database wasu bayanai ne da aka shirya su a cikin Kwamfuta domin ita Kwamfutar ta sami saukin binciken kalma bayan kalma ko harafi bayan harafi ko bayanai bayan bayanai da ke cikin shi.

Inda aka fi amfani da database shine bankuna da kuma ma’aikatu da suke ajiyar muhimman bayanai, wanda duk lokacin da ake neman bayanin mutum za a shiga cikin wannan database a tambayi kwamfuta ita kuma ta bayar da amsa.

Yadda ake shirya database ya yi kama da yadda ake shirya takardar daukan aiki ko kuma takardar form kowane iri. Domin za a ba mutum takarda ne wacce a cikin ta akwai wadansu ‘yan tambayoyi kamar suna da kuma adireshi da makamantansu. Idan mutum ya cike wannan form, to bayanan da ya rubuta a cikin takardar su ake kwashewa a zubawa kwamfuta. Inda ake zubawa domin a killace shi a kuma inganta ajiyarsa shine ake kira da database.

Akwai abubuwa da suke kunshe a cikin haduwar bayanai da suke cikin database wanda ake kira da fields, da records da kuma files.

  • Fields shine rami guda da ake ajiye bayani ko bayanai a cikin database
  • Records shine jerin ramuka na kwance da ke cikin database wani lokaci ana kiranshi da tuples.
  • Files shine abin da fields da records suka kunsa a database.

Misalin da zan ba da shi ne kamar takardar da ake rubuta adireshi da lambar wayar mutum (Address Book) kaga a kalla ace dole a rubuta suna, da adireshi da kuma lambar waya. To idan aka jerasu a saman takarda, to, kowa idan ya zo zai cike ka ga zai rubuta sunansa a kasan layin da aka rubuta suna, sai ya koma wurin da zai rubuta adireshin sa a kasan inda ake son ya rubuta adireshin nasa. Haka sai ya koma inda aka rubuta lambar waya nan ma ya rubuta lambar wayar. Kuma kowa ya sani dole zai rubuta komai a kan layi guda ne.

To wurin da ya rubuta sunansa ko kuma ramin da ya rubuta suna ko adireshi ko lambar wayar wannan ramin shi ake kira da field a ilimin database. Haka kuma jeruwar suna da adireshi da lambar waya wannan layin  shi ake kira da records. Sannan dukkanin sunayen da suke kunshe a cikin wannan takarda ta adireshi da lambobin wayar wannan takardar ita a ke kira da files.

Akwai program da dama da suke iya baiwa mutum damar ya shirya bayanai a kintse a cikin kwamfuta wanda ake kira da database program sune kamar access da kuma oracle da dai makamantasu.

Idan mutum ya na son ya sami damar amfani da bayanai  da suke cikin database a cikin kwamfuta dole sai yana da program na musamman da aka yi su domin su iya bincikar abin da ke cikin database wannan program su ake kira da DBMS wato Database Management System ai wadannan software sune program da mutane suke koya a makarantun kwamfuta kamar su MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Access, Oracle, Sybase, FoxPro, IBM DB2, da Linter.

Dukkanin wadannan program suna aiki ne domin su baka damar ka iya shiga ka biciki abin da aka saka a database. Kuma ma hasali su irin wadannan program su ake amfani da su wajen shirya shi wannan database. Sannan kuma su database program ko kuma DBMS suna da alaka da junansu ta wajen yaren da ake amfani da shi a yi magana da abin da ya ke cikin database. Wannan yare shi kuke jin ana kira da SQL ko kuma Structured Query Language wannan yaren kamar yadda aka ji an kirashi da structured wato wani yare ne da aka tabbtar da kinin shi, wato babu wani wanda zai zo daga baya yace a sake gina yaren da muka ji kuma an ce Query shine kamar query na wurin aiki da idan mutum ya yi fashi ko kuma an tuhumarsa sai a aiko masa da takardar binciken bahasin laifinsa. Saboda haka shi wannan yare aikin sa shine wadansu yarukane da aka zauna aka shirya aka ce duk wanda zai yi software da zai gina database to dole ya daurashi a kan wannan tsari domin kowa ya sami saukin yin bincike a cikin abin da ke kunshe a database.

Sun irin wadannan software ko application na database su suke da alhakin sakawa ko cirewa ko garawa ko ma ganin abin da ke cikin database. Wani lokaci akan yi amfani da kalmar databse ta wakilci Database Management System (DBMS).

12 COMMENTS

  1. Agaskiya malam salisu mukam babu abinda zamuce saidai mice Allah yasaka da alheri, don wallahi yanzu haka inanan inata practical na web site design, Akan system dinana. Amma idan Allah yasa nagama zanturo maka da copy Dan kadan dubamun kafin nayi publishing, duk acikin practical ne kafin mufara karatu. Ko akwai wani Dan kuskure wanda baza,arasaba. Allah yaska da alheri amin. Daga Ibrahim Muh’h Port Harcourt.

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