Computer Virus – Cikakkun bayanai akan yadda yake yin ta’adi a cikin na’ura

Bayyanar virus na computer ya yawaita ne ko ma ace ya bayyana ne a kusan shekarar 1980, wanda a gabanin wadannan shekaru babu wanda ya san wani abu mai suna virus. Akwai tunanin wasu dalilai guda uku da ake ganin su suka sa aka kirkiri virus, wadannan dalilai kuwa sune:

1. Dalili na farko shine a baya ba kowane mahaluki bane ya san ma akwai wata abu computer ba, wasu sukan ji labarin ta a gidajen yada labarai, sai a cikin shekarar 1980 a lokacin da aka samu yawaitar irin wadannan na’urori da muke ganin su a ko ina a fadin duniyan nan, irin wadanda muke ganinsu a gidajenmu da ofisoshinmu da asibitocinmu da dai sauran makamantansu. Su wandannan irin na’urori sune wadanda ake kiransu da Personal Computer ko PC a takaice wato (Na’ura mallakinka).

Su kuwa wadancan na’urori na asali wanda ba ka iya ganisu a gidaje da wurare da muka ambata (saboda girmansu), basu ma da yawa da har wani zai iya cewa ya gansu, ba kowane wuri ake samunsu ba illa manya-manyan ma’aikatun gwannati, gwannatin ma ba kowacce ba sai ta kasashen da suka ci gaba.  To a cikin wannan shekara ta 1980 ita ce  shekarar da duniya ba za ta manta ba musamman Duniyar Computer, domin a wannan shekarar ne kamfanoni irin su IBM (International Business Machine) da kamfani irin su Apple Macintosh, suka fara kirkiran ita wannan na’ura mallakinka (PC) wacce ake ganinta a yanzu. To, a wannan shekara sai aka samu na’ura ta yawaita a duniya, ganin na’ura ta yawaita sai wasu mutane suka fara kirkirar wadansu program domin su bata ita na’urar.

2. Dalili na biyu shine; lokacin da aka fara amfani da hanyar amfani da na’ura wajen kiran waya, mutane suna amfani da Bulleted Board tare da moderm domin sauko da kananan programs daga Internet.  A wannan lokacin saboda samun wannan sabuwar fasaha (domin a baya ba a iya yin haka) sai mutane suka rinka yin amfani da wanna dama suna dauko Games daga internet suna sasu a cikin na’urorinsu. Duk a wannan lokaci ne aka samu bayyanar wadansu programs kamar Word Processing Program da Spreadsheet da makamantan irin wadannan shaharrrun programs. Bulleted Board, ana amfani da shi a goya masa wani tsarin program wanda ake kira da (Trojon Horse). Trojan Horse program ne da yake da suna mai dadi, kuma yana kumshe da bayanai, idan aka sauko da wani abu daga Bulleted Board wanda dama daga Internet yake wannan kafa idan aka yi rashin sa’a akwai Trojan Horse a kumshe da shi sai kawai ya shiga na’urarka ya fara ta’adi ko kuma ya fara abinda bai kamata ba. Irin abubuwan da zai yi shine ya share dukkan abinda ke cikin kwakwalwar na’urarka mai amfani.

3. Dalili na uku da ya taimaka wajen kirkiro Virus shine bayyanar Floppy Disk. A wancan lokacin a shekarar 1980 program kanana ne, wanda a wancan lokacin OS da wasu program za su iya shiga cikin Floppy Disk daya ko biyu (girman Floppy Disk shine 3.5Mb), to, kaga duk abinda aka ce program ne kuma ya shiga cikin Floppy ashe kankantarshi ta kai a duba. A baya na’urori basu da manyan kwakwalwa (Hard Disk) wadansu  idan zaka tashe su sai ka sa musu Floppy Disk din sannan ta tashi kuma dukkanin programs da za ka yi amfani dasu suna cikin shi ne. To, tunda OS zai iya zaunawa a cikin Floppy Disk, shine suka kirkiri Virus don ya lalata OS din ko kuma program da aka ajiye a cikin sa.

A wancan lokaci su kansu Virus ba wai kamar yanzu bane, suma basu wuce wasu layika guda biyu ko fiye da haka ba wanda ake rubuta su, a daurasu a jikin wasu shahararrun program kamar Word Processing da wasu shahararrun games. (da zarar sun fahimci cewar wannan program mutane sun damu da suyi amfani da shi, sai kawai su dauro Virus da zai bata shi). To, idan mutum ya shiga yanar giza (internet) ya shiga sashen Bulleted Board ya ga wani sabon program ko games, ya ga irin aikin da yake yi, idan ya gamsu da aikin shi, idan ya sauko da shi cikin na’urarshi domin yayi aiki da shi tunda shi kan shi game din karami ne, sannan Code da aka goya mashi karami ne sai kawai kaga na’urarka tana wasu ‘yan rashin hankula da baka gane mashi ba.  Wani sa’i ma shi program din ba shi ake daurawa Virus din ba, a shafukan yanar gizon ake daurawa da zarar kayi amfani da Floppy ka dauko wani program sai ya biyo cikin Floppy din sannan ya fara ta’adi a naurar ka, ta hanyar duba dukkanin abinda yake cikin naur’ar, idan ya ga program da zai iya lalatawa sai ya fara aiki. Wani lokacin ma, ba wai zai lalata wasu files naka bane, zai ta maimaita kanshi ne, har sai ya tsayar da ita na’urar, ko kuma ya dauki wani file guda ya ta budeshi da yawa a ko wane lokaci (makar Raila Odinga). Ba tare da ka lura ba sai virus ya cika na’urarka. Daga cikin abin tsoro da shi Virus, shine idan wani yazo da Floppy Disk, ya kawo maka aiki ne, ko kuma ya zo zai dauki aiki a cikin na’urar kane, idan har akwai wannan Virus to sai ya fada cikin wannan Floppy Disk ba tare da mai shi ya sani ba. Idan yaje ya sa a cikin na’urar shi shima sai naurar shi itama ta kamu da irin wannan cutar. Da wannan ne Virus ya yadu a duniya cikin kankanin lokaci.

Mutane suna fahimtar hanyar da za su tsare ko kuma magance na’urar su, su kuma gwanayen virus suna kara fito da wata sabuwar hanyar yada shi da salon yadda zai rinka lalata kayan na’ura. Daga cikin nasarori da suka samu wajen cutarwar shine, dama da suka samu ta su shigar da Virus cikin Memory na na’ura yadda ba sai ka tashi program da ta kamu da Virus ba, sannan shi virus ya fara ta’adi ba, ko kuma yada kanshi ba. Idan dai har wannan Virus ya sami damar kutsawa cikin Memory na Computer to an gama, zai ci gaba da yada kanshi matukar wannan na’urar tana kunne ne. hakan ya kara ba Virus karfi da ikon yaduwa, mutane kuma sun fara kara damuwa da irin ta’addanncin da Virus yake yi.

Shi kuwa Virus manufarshi, shine ya lalata ko ya jikkata wani program (domin wani virus ana aiko shi musamman domin ya lalata wani program) da na’ura take amfani da shi wajen yin wani muhimmin aiki. A misali akwai wurin da ka ke kiranshi da Boot Sector (inda na’ura take ajiye dukkan kayan da take bukata wajen tashi ko kashe kanta). To, wasu virus nan kawai suke nufa, kuma aiken da akan yi masu kenan da zarar suka samu shiga cikin Boot Sector sai suyi fata-fata da wadannan kayan, idan suka gama, kai kuma ka gama aiki a wannan lokaci ka kashe ta, to, idan ka dawo daga baya domin ka tashe ta, sai ta ce dauke ni inda ka ajiye ni, ma’ana ba zata sake tashi ba balle ka ci gaba da aikin ka. Daga mahimmmancin wannan Boot Sector yana daga cikin program da suke gayawa sauran program da suke cikin  na’urarka ga yadda zasu yi aiki da sadda ake bukatar aikin su.

Wani abin karin haushi shine, duk sa’adda mutum ya dauki Floppy Disk ya sa a cikin na’urar da take da irin wannan Virus, sannan ya dauke shi ya sa shi a cikin na’urar ka da kake bukatar aiki da shi to ba makawa sai ya sa ma na’urar taka wannan cuta. Shi yasa zaka ga an fi samun Virus a Jami’o’i da shagunan aiki na na’ura domin a wuraren ne aka fi amfani da shi Floppy Disk din wajen dauka da kuma kai ayyuka daban-daban.

To, da Virus din da yake shiga Boot Sector ko wanda yake zuwa a like da program, maganar ta kau, domin a wancan shekarun na baya ana daukan program a cikin Floppy kawai kamar yadda muka fada a baya, wanda muka ce hatta OS yana shiga cikin Floppy daya ko biyu. Amma a wannan lokaci, ka kwantar da hankalinka, domin a yau dukkanin programs da ake amfani dasu sun fi karfin su shiga cikin Floppy Disk saboda girmansu. Maganar Virus dake shiga Boot Sector itama ta kau, domin a wannan lokacin dukkanin kamfanoni da suke yin OS suna hado shi ne tare da wani program na musamman wanda shi ke da alhakin lura da Boot Sector. Maganar daukan Virus ta hanyar Floppy Disk itama ta kau damin a wannan lokaci da wuya kaga wani yana amfani da shi, kuma gashi dukkanin programs da mutum zai siya zaka tarar da shi a cikin CD ko DVD yake wanda su kuma a tsarinsu babu wani abu da zai iya shiga cikin su. Sai dai idan su kamfanin da suka yi program din su suka hada da virus (ko kuma irin program na sata masu zuwa tare da crack). Amma da matukar wahala virus ya shigo maka na’ura a sanadiyar sa program da yazo a cikin CD ko DVD. Ko da yake a yanzu akwai makwafin Floppy Disk wanda shima yana saurin yada Virus shine Flash Drive, domin yana aiki ne kamar yadda Floppy kuma shi yafi Floppy matsala  domin shi yakan iya daukan ko wane irin virus sannan zai iya daukar virus masu yawa daban-daban.

Amma ka sani, shima virus da yake shiga memory ko Boot Sector, ba wai basu iya shiga bane, suna iya shiga sai dai basa iya yada kansu kamar yadda suke iya yi a baya, domin kulawa ta musamman da aka bashi domin kare na’ura daga lalacewa.

EMAIL VIRUSES

Salon yada virus ya sami sabon salo a shekarar 1999 a lokacin da wani virus wanda aka turoshi ta Email a hade da Ms Word File wanda ake kiranshi da Melissa.

A watan March 1999 aka kirkiri Melissa Virus wanda aka hada shi da file na Ms Word, shi kuma Melissa ga yadda yake yin nasa salon cutarwar.

Wani mutum ne ya kirkiro Melissa sannan ya daurashi a Ms Word Document sannan ya daurashi a internet a wani dandali na Newsgroup, wuri ne da mutane suke shiga domin ana zuba abubuwan karuwa na n’aura kamar bayanai masu mahimmanci da mutum zai yi amfani da su wajen gyara ko koyon wani aiki da dai makamantansu. To, kamar sauran masu kirkirar Virus shima wannan mutumin yayi amfani da wurin da ya daura wannan document wanda yake kumshe a cikin wani tsarin rubutu dake hade da Macro wanda su kamfanin da suke yin Ms Word program sun ba mai amfani da program din damar ya kara wata fasaha ta musamman wadda mutum idan zai iya sai program din shi ya rinka yin wani aiki na musamman, wanda sauran irin wannan program baya yi. To, tunda mutane sun saba shiga Interner kuma suna shiga dandalin Newsgroup, kuma wani abu mai kama da virus ba a taba turashi a jikin Ms Word file ba sai kawai mutane suka rinka saukar da shi cikin na’uririnsu domin suga me wannan document ke kunshe da shi.

Ya Melissa Virus yake Ta’adi?

Da zarar mutum ya bude wannan document, ba zai ga komai ba kuma ba zai fahimci abinda yake faruwa ba, amma a karkashin kasa shi wannan document sai ya warware wannan Macro, sannan ya nufi inda ka ke ajiye adireshi da sunanyen mutane a na’urarka (wanda da yawa wasu daga cikin mutane a wannan kasa basu san akwai inda zaka ajiye lambobin waya da sunaye da hotuna da lambar email da makamantan su ba a Computer). Idan har kana ajiye irin wadannan sunaye sai Melissa ya dauki sunayen mutane hamsin (50) daga ciki, ya dauko wannan document wanda yake da wannan virus ya aika wa mutanen nan guda hamsin (50) kuma ya sa naka adireshin a jikin email din yadda duk wanda yaga wannan email yasan wane shine ya aiko da sakon email din, kuma kai amintacce ne a wurin shi ya san ba zaka aiko da virus ba. Ba wai ya tsaya haka ba ke nan, suma wadancan mutane hamsin (50) da ya aikawa, suma zai dauki mutane hamsin suma ya goya wannan document ya aika musu, to da haka Melissa Virus ya cika duniya. Masana sunce a tarihin virus ba a taba samun virus da yada yadu a dan kankanin lokaci kuma ya cika duniya kamar Melissa ba.

Daga cikin manufofin wadanda suka kirkiri Melissa shine manyan kamfanoni su daina amfani da email, hakarsu ta cimma ruwa, domin lokacin da aka gano irin ta’adi da Melissa yake yi, dole yasa manyan kamfanoni suka kashe sashen akwatunan email din su, domin kada Melissa ya hau kan na’urorin su (su kuwa na’urorin su ba wanda yasan yawan mutanen da suke amfani da ita).

Kamar yadda muka fada a baya, shi wannan Virus na Melissa ana amfani da Macro na Ms Word Document, wanda shi wannan Macro, Code ne bai wuce ‘yan layika ba da ake rubuta shi ta hanyar VBA (Visual Basic for Application) wannan sashe ne na rubuta program mai sauki domin karawa dukkan wani application na Microsoft Word karfi wajen zartar da aiki na musamman. Sai suka yi amfani da shi suka goya Macro, wanda da zarar ka bude wannan document domin karanta abinda ke cikin sa, sai kawai ya fara ta’adi. Ko da yake ba wai Melissa Virus shi kadai ne Virus da aka turo shi ta hanyar email ba.

I LOVE YOU VIRUS

I love you Virus; virus ne da aka same shi a ranar 4 ga watan Mayu, 2000 bayan kamar shekara daya da wata daya da bayyanar Melissa. Shi wannan Virus na I Love You yasha ban-ban da Melissa domin shi email za a aiko maka a jikin email din akwai attachment, to shi wannna attachment yana kumshe da wasu rubutu (code) kanana, ko kuma program dan karami wanda da zarar ka matsa mouse sau biyu (Double Click), sai ya fara duba dukkanin mutanen da suke cikin matattarar adireshinka dukkan su ya dauke su, ya aika da Virus sannan ya fara cinye maka mahimman files da program da suke cikin na’urar. Karfin I Love You Virus ya kai inda zai kai da tsayar da na’urar gaba dayanta ya zama ba zata iya motsawa ba. To, hakan shine abu mafi sauki da Virus zai iya yi.

A dalilin haka, kamfanin Microsoft wanda sune wadanda aka fi amfani da kayansu wajen Typing da makamantansu, suka sanya wani tsari, wanda shi wannan tsari zai hana duk wani Virus da akayi amfani da VBA aka rubuta shi kuma aka sashi tare da daya daga application dinsu zai kare shi daga Virus. Wannan tsari ana kiran shi da Micro Virsus Protection. Wanda da zarar wannan bangaren a kunne yake (wato ance yayi aiki) to babu wani Virus da zai taho ta wannan hanya ya kuma cutar da naurar ka.

Amma abin bakin ciki da haushi, mutane suna mantawa ko kuma nuna halin ko in kula da wannan MVP, idan ya bayyanar da sako cewar “hattara da wannan document akwai VBA a jikin shi” maimakon mutane su duba me sakon ya kunsa, sai kawai ayi burus da shi, wasu ma da zarar irin wannan sako ya damesu sai su nemi yaya ake kashe sakon domin kada ya kara bayyana a gaba. To wannan yana daya daga cikin irin kura-kuran da mutane suke yi, a lokacin da suka ga wani sako ya dame su sai su nemi sanin abinda wannan sako ya kunsa ba ayi halin ko-in-kula ba. Ya kamata a kula da kyau a kuma yi Hattara!!!

WASU HANYOYIN CUTARWA

Virus da Worm (Tsutsotsi) anfi sanin su a wajen cutar da na’ura, amma ba su kadai bane abubuwan da ke iya jawo matsala ga lafiyar na’urar ka ba. Malware shima daya ne daga cikin abubuwan da suke iya cutar da na’ura da kuma lafiyarta. Ga kadan daga cikin wasu Malware da suke iya cutar da lafiyar na’ura.

Adware; aikin wannan shine ya rinka bijiro maka da tallace-tallace a jikin na’urarka daga internet, wanda ba kai bane kace kana bukatar irin wadannan tallace-tallace.

Spyware; shi kuma irin wannan virus abinda yake yi shine ya na binciken mahimman bayanai na na’urarka ko kuma sirri da ka ajiye cikin na’urar kamar Password, Document da kamar lambobin sirri na Credit Card da dai makamantan abubuwa masu mahimmanci wanda ya kebantu gare ka. Idan ya bincika bawai zai tsaya nan bane a’a, zai aikawa da wadanda suka kirkireshi domin suyi amfani da shi, ko kuma su sace maka kudadenka da suke banki (tunda ana e-banking).

Hijackers; Wannan virus ya kwace ragamar sarrafa na’urarka, ya zama da zarar ta tashi, to, baka da damar aiki da ita zai zama kamar yadda zambi suke yi a cikin film babu abinda yake sarrafasu illa lafiyayyen mutum.

Dialers; Wannan virus ne da zai tilastawa na’urarka tarinka kiran wayoyi idan kayi rigista da wani kamfani da kake amfani da shi wajen amsa waya a na’ura. Misali kamar kana amfani da Modem na MTN sai ya kasance kuma bayan amfani da shi wajen internet kuma zaka iya amfani da shi ka kira. To shi wannan virus kawai sai yayi amfani da wannan modem ya buda adress book na na’urarka ya rinka kiran lambobi kudin ka na tafiya.

13 COMMENTS

  1. Mal tambayoyina akan wannan darasi sune:

    1 > Shin girman na’urorin da suka kasance kafin 1980 shine ya hana bayyana da yaduwar virus? Ko kuma rashin yawaitarsu da yaduwarsu kamar na mallakin kanka{pc}

    2 > malam wadannan manyan virus dake shiga irinsu >
    malissa, malware dasauransu; sune kuma ke shiga kan phonememory ko memorin da ake sawa waya?

    3 > malam kada dai agaji da tambayoyina sonake na gane,
    wani lokacin nakanji masu {pc} sukance antivirus dinsu ya hadiye musu wasu programs. Shin wai meke faruwane?

    4 > kuma da virus da worm ma’anar su dayane ko kowanne da tasa ma’anar?

    5 > kuma malam > adware, spyware, hijacker, dialers duk aqarqashin Malware suke? Kokuwa kowanne yana zaman kansane?

  2. Shidai virus a ilimin kimiyyar (Microbiology) halittace mai rai wadda ido baya iya ganin ta dan kankanta, kuma tana shiga jikin dan-adam ko dabba ta cutar dasu Tambayata itace; Shin menene dalilin da yasa Masana ilimin computer suke amfani da sunan virus ?

  3. Salam, Tambayata itace, Zan iya ganin virus din da ya shiga computer ta? A’ina zan gan shi? Zan iya cireshi ba tare da Anti-virus ba?

    Tambaya ta gaba itace idan nayi amfani da computer da take da virus na saka wata data acikin CD, to virus din zai bi wannan data ya shiga cikin CD?. Kuma idan nasaka wannan CD awata computer virus din zai iya shiga cikinta?
    Allah ya qara jagora Amin

  4. Salam,

    Tambayoyina anan sune –
    1. Me kesa Virus na replicating (yada) kansa a Computer?
    2. Wadanne nau’in Virus ne ake kira Rootkit Virus kuma ya bambancinsu yake da Trojan Horse?
    3. Miye banbancin Virus na gida da wadanda ba nagida ba?
    4. Virus zai iya taba PDF Documents kuwa?
    5. Me ke kawo Autorun.inf Virus?
    6. Wane nau’in Virus ne ke mayar maka da Files ko Folder Shortcut (watau .lnk).

    Allah ya taimakemu, Ameen.

  5. Salam.

    Q1.=Nitambayata anan itace, wasu hanyoyine zakabi kakare na’urarka daga kamuwa daga ta’adi irin na MELISSA virus?
    Q2.=Idanka gano wata folder taka wadda take da virus, menene mataki nafarko wanda zaka fara dauka akan folder din taka?
    Q3.=Idankagane cewa Floppy Disk, dinka yakamu da virus wane mataki zakadauka akai kokuma ince meye zakaima Floppy Disk din naka domin yara bu da virus din?

    ALLAH SAMUDACE.

  6. Mun gode sosai duniyar computer, a baya nasan virus amma bansan wadanda suka kirkiro wane moriya suke samu dangane dashi ba sai yanzu. Wace hanyace mutum zaibi yakare na’urarsa daga kamuwa da virus.

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