Banbanci Tsakanin Program, da Programmer, da Programming da kuma Programming Language

Ina ganin nafi kowa farin ciki da wannan shafi, dama ina da wadansu kalmomi da suka shige mini duhu dangane da computer Me Kalmar PROGRAM, PROGRAMMER, PROGRAMMING da kuma PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE ke nufi. Zan yi mutukar farin ciki idan aka amsa mini da sauri kamar yadda naga an amsa wa Salisu Hassan tashi tambayar. Na gode Yahaya Alhassan daga Kaduna  (Martin) 14 Mayu da karfe 11:39

Program:

Shi wani tsarin rubuce-rubuce da yake ba na’ura umarni, wato program rubuta shi ake yi sannan a hadashi a wuri daya domin ya bayar da ma’ana guda daya (Application).

Shi kuwa program ana tsara shi ne ta hanyar da na’ura zata fahimci me ake son tayi amfani da yare irin na yin program (Programing Languge) wadanda suka hada da tsari irin na C (Si) da JAVA (jaba) ko kuma ta amfani da Assembly language. Kusan dukkan abinda ka gani a jikin ko wace computer akwai program hatta wannan tambaya da ka rubuta kayi amfani da program ka rubuta, haka waya da kake amfani da ita tana cike da program acikin ta shi yasa kake iya amfani da ita.

 Programmer:

Shine mutumin da ya fahimci yadda ake rubuta program da yarenshi program din, kuma ya kirkiri program har ya gwada ya samu nasarar aiki da shi. Ma’ana duk wanda yasan yadda zai rubuta wani umarni ko ya yake da na’ura zata amsa har wani yayi amfani da shi wannan umar nin, to ana iya kiranshi da programmer. Misalin mutanen da suka hadu suka yi Opera mini (kowa yasan browser ce), ko Microsoft Word, ko kuma Games da dai irin su Anti-Virus da dai makamantansu sune wadanda ake cewa programmer. haka irin wadanda suke iya kirkiran shafin internet suma ana kiransu da programmers.

Programming

A lokacin da programmer yake kan rubuta program to wannan aiki da yake yi shine ake cewa programming. Misali lokacin da yake kan yin aikin samar da wannan program idan aka tambaye shi me kake yi zai ce yana programming ne.

Programming Language

Wannan shine uwa-uba domin dukkan wadancan guda ukun basu tabbata sai ka zamanto ka san yaren da zaka yi wa na’ura ta kuma fahimta. Programing Language yare ne da ake amfani da shi wurin rubuta program da zai ba ita na’ura umarni, wanda shi wannan yare yana da tsarin shi da kuma ka’idojinshi, kamar yadda kasan mutum yana da yare kuma akwai ka’idojin da ake amfani dasu wajen yin wannan yare. Su wadannan yarukan suna da matukar yawa koda yake wasu suna kama da wasu,  kusan dukkansu sun banbanta a wurare da dama.

A wuraren shekarun 1960 zuwa 1970 akwai programing languages da yawa wanda yawansu ya wuce dubu biyu, duk da cewar da yawa daga cikin su wadancan programming language ba su da mahimmanci ko kuma ba a ma sansu ba, bai wuce mutane kalilan ne, suka san shi ba kuma suke amfani da shi. Ko da yake an sami gagarumin canji a yanzu da yake da ko wane programing language dole shi kadai ake rubutashi, ba wani program da zai baka damar kirkiran program fiye da daya. Amma a wannan lokaci da fasaha ta yawaita akan sami program guda wanda zai baka dama ka rubuta program da yaruka da dama, misali Visual Studio wanda shi program guda ne, amma yana yarda ka rubuta program fiye da bakwai a cikin shi, wanda a da, sai dai kayi amfani da tsari irin na general-purpose-language.

Ga kadan daga cikin programin language da ake da su, wadanda ko wani daya daga ciki zaka iya koyan shi, kuma ka rubuta wani program da zaka yi amfani da shi ko al’umma su amfani da shi. Kada ka manta hatta wannan rubutu da nayi, nayi amfani da program ne har kake iya karantashi, to dukkanin program da kake gani ajikin Computer, akwai yare ko kuma tsarin da aka rubuta shi da shi.

1.      General – Purpose – Language, wanda ake rubuta manyan program da shi, ya kunshi programming language kamar PL/I, da C (ana kiranshi da Si) da C++ (Ana kiranshi da Si Plus Plus) da Paskal, da Module-2, da Ada, da Java (Ana kiranshi da Jaba) da kuma C# (ana kiranshi da Si Shap). Wadannan sun fado cikin general-purpose-language babba.

2.      General Purpose Language, wanda shi ana rubuta kananan program da shi wadanda basu kai wadancan karfi da girma ba sun hada da Programing Language kamar Basic da Visual Basic da Paskal da kuma Python.

3.      Sai Programing Language da ya kunshi lissafi (Mathematical) da Kimiyya (Science) da kuma Engineering su kuma programing language da yake rike da su sun hada da FORTRAN, APL, MAPLE da kuma dukkaning programing language na General-Purpose-Language babban.

4.      Sai programing Language da ake rubuta abinda ya shafi harkar kasuwanci da tafiyar da shi (Business Data Processing) wanda ya hada da COBOL, RPG, wanda micro-computers suka shigo ciki. Haka BASIC da C da dukkanin program da ya shafi databases suma sun shigo cikin Business Data Processing Programing Language.

5.      Artificial Intelligence, sune irin Program da ake rubuta wa domin su yi aiki da kan su, su duba abu dakan su kuma su maganceshi, to irin wadannan Application ana amfani da Lisp da Poslog wajen rubuta su.

6.      String Handling da Scripting, ya kunshi programing Language kamar su SNOBOL da REXX da AWK da Perl da Python da VBSCript da JavaScript.

Wadannan kenan atakaice, sannan su dukkan wadannan programing language da ake gani suna iya fadawa cikin aikin da wani daga ciki zai iya yi. Sannan kuma ta bangaren banbancin yadda ake rubutasu shine akwai inda suka hadu, kamar yadda hausa dayace, amma yadda na kano yake hausa da banbanci da yadda zage-zagi suke yi, haka sakkwatawa da zamfarawa hausa suke yi amma yanayin maganarsu ta sha banban.

Ga wasu kadan daga wasu bangaren programming language wadanda tsarinsu ya banbanta da wadancan, ko kuma suna da alaka tsakaninsu da juna, sune kamar haka

1.      Sequential Language, wannan shine dukkan wani program da aka rubutashi da zai bi tsari mataki-mataki kafin ya gabatar da umarnin da aka bashi. Misalin dukkan wani programing da za ayi amfani da bincike akan abu kafin abun ya bayyana to ya shigo cikin wannan tsari na Sequential Language, kama GOTO Statement da makamantansu, Programming da suka fado ciki sun hada da FORTRAN da BASIC da kuma COBOL (ko da yake shi COBOL yana bada damar a rubutashi a tsari daban-daban kusan kamar Block-Structural Language.

2.      Block-Structural Language, shi wannan tsari yana baiwa programmer damar su gabatar da tsari da yawa su tarasu a wuri guda domin yin aiki, ba kamar yadda Sequential Language ba wanda shi yana yin aiki daya-bayan-daya ne. Domin shi Blocak Structural Language yana fitar da sakamakone lokaci guda ba sai ya fito da amsar daya-bayan-daya ba. Ko da yake asalin Block Structural Language shine Algon amma a yanzu ya hada da Pascal da Module-2 da C da PL/I da kuma Ada.

3.      Object Oriented Language yana baiwa programmer dama su kirkiri sababbin mazubin data (data type) sannan su yi aiki tare da sauran data type da suke a farko kamar dama sun saba aiki tare. Object Oriented Language sun hada da C++ da Java da kuma C#.

Symbolic Language, sune irin program da programmer ke iya yi a karshe su zama suna duba abinda ke kansu, su binciki abinda ke tare dasu kuma su warware matsalar da suke ganin ta shafesu ko kuma ta shafi abinda aka sa su lura da shi. Symbolic Language sune Lasp da Prolog.

9 COMMENTS

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