Yadda Computer take ganin abu a cikinta … duhu na dukan duhu

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Mafi yawancin Computer Digital ce, haka na nufin cewar bata fahimtar komai illa ta hanyayoyi guda biyu, kunnawa da kashewa (on/off), su kuwa wadannan hanyoyi suna bijiro wa ita computer ne ta lambobi guda biyu 0 (sufuli) da kuma 1 (daya). Shi 0 yana nufin kashewa, ita kuma 1 tana nufin kunnawa. Wato ita na’ura duk abin da yake cikinta tana fahimtarshi ne da wannan lambobi guda biyu, babu wani yare da ita na’ura take fahimta illa abin da ya bayyana a gareta na 0 da

1. Saboda haka, matsayin kunawa da kashewa a wajen na’uran ana kiran shi da bit (an takaita shi cikakken sunan shi ne Binary Digit), shi kuma digit shi ne mafi kankantar abu da na’ura za ta iya rikewa na data. Idan aka samu digo na bit har guda takwas (8 bits) a dunkule su ne suke zama byte daya (1 byte). Shi kuwa byte guda zai iya wakiltar abu guda 256 wanda suka hada da harrufa da lambobi da alamomi da makamantansu.

Cakuduwar 0s (da yawa) da 1s (da yawa) su ne suke wakiltar wani abu na data wanda ake kira da suna coding scheme (tsarin fassara wa na’ura rubutu ko data). ma’ana a lokacin da ka rubuta harafin 1 a jikin Microsoft Word ita na’urar ba ta gane cewar 1 a ka rubuta sai idan processor ya shigar da latsawar da ka yi wa keyboard a lokacin sai yaga 00110010, ganin hakan sai ya dauko harafin 1 ya nuna maka a jikin Monitor. Haka idan ka rubuta babban harafin M abin da take iya gani shi ne 01001101. Mafi shahara daga irin tsare-tsare na fassara wa computer rubutu (coding scheme) sun hada ASCII da EBCDIC da Unicode.

ASCII: Yana nufin American Standard Code for Information Interchange, wannan tsari am fi amfani da shi wajen fassarawa na’ura yadda za ta gane data. Ana yawan yin amfani da shi a Personal Computers da kuma Minicomputers.

EBCDIC: Wanda yake nufin Extended Binary Code Decimal Interchange Code, ana amfani da wannan tsari kawai a Mainframe Computers ne.

Unicode: Shi kuma tsari ne da yake baka dama ka rubuta tsarin fassara wa computer da kowane irin yare na duniya. Wato wanda ya fahimci Unicode zai iya rubuta program da yarensa kuma Computer ta fahimci yaren.

Saboda haka, dan Adam yana iya yin magana da Digital Computer da take karBar sako daga tsarin bit ta hanyar amfani da ASCII coding scheme. Yadda abin yake a duk lokacin da ka latsa wani maBalli a jikin keyboard, sigina ta wutar lantarkin tana canzawa zuwa binary ta yadda ita computer za ta gane wani harafin da aka latsa sannan ta ajiyeshi a cikin memory.

Dukkanin wani harafi da aka latsa a jikin maBallin keyboard farkon abin da yake faruwa shi ne ya canza wannan sigina na lantarki zuwa irin byte nashi. Sai ita na’urar ta sarrafa shi data din ta hanyar bytes wacce take amfani da hanyar kunnawa da kashewa on/off. Lokacin da wannan na’ura ta gama sarrafa wannan harafi sai ta sake canzasu zuwa lamba ko kuma harafi sannan ta fitar da shi a jikin monitor ko kuma ta yi maka printing. Yadda computer take ganin wasu harufa a lokacin da ake rubuta su a jikin ta. wato misalin duk lokacin da Computer ta ji alamar 01001101 to sai ta gane cewar an taBa maBallin M a jikin keyboard saboda haka sai ta dauko hoton M a memory nata sai ta saka a jikin Monitor, haka duk rubutun da za ka yi ajiki kowane irin abune, kamar waya da makamantansu ita na’urar abin da take gani shi ne 0 da 1 kai kuma kana ganin hotunan harrufa da kake taBawa.

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